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Table 4 Frequencies of T scores and borderline and impaired T scores (≤ 36) from adult male ALD patients compared to the percentage in the standardized norm group (8%)

From: Overall intact cognitive function in male X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy adults with normal MRI

   N Test T score Z p 95% CI
≥ 70 64–69 57–63 44–56 37–43 30–36 (%) ≤ 29 (%)
Language Letter fluency 33 0 0 4 16 8 4 (12.1 1 (3) 1.514 0.130 5.11–31.90
Similarities 33 0 0 6 13 11 3 (9) 0 0.231 0.818 1.92–24.33
Vocabulary 33 0 0 5 16 10 2 (6) 0 0.411 0.681 0.74–20.23
Verbal memory REY AVLT IR 33 0 0 6 16 6 2 (6) 3 (9) 1.514 0.130 5.11–31.90
Rey AVLT DR 33 0 2 7 11 11 2 (6) 0 0.411 0.681 0.74–20.23
Rey AVLT DR/IR 33 0 2 8 19 4 0 0 1.694 0.090 0.00–10.58
Non-verbal memory WMS VR IR 32 2 2 4 18 5 1 (3) 0 1.015 0.310 0.08–16.22
WMS VR DR 32 4 1 10 14 3 0 0 1.668 0.095 0.00–10.89
WMS VR recognition 32 0 0 18 11 2 1 (3) 0 1.015 0.310 0.08–16.22
Visuoconstruction Beery VMI 31 0 1 2 19 3 3 (9.7) 3 (9.7) 2.329 0.020* 7.45–37.47
Executive functioning TMT A 31 5 6 3 13 3 1 (3.2) 0 0.979 0.328 0.08–16.71
TMT B 31 4 2 6 14 3 2 (6.5) 0 0.318 0.750 0.79–21.42
TMT B/A 31 1 1 6 16 5 2 (6.5) 0 0.318 0.750 0.79–21.42
Stroop I 32 2 1 1 19 6 2 (6.3) 1 (3,1) 0.288 0.774 1.98–25.03
Stroop II 31 2 2 2 16 7 1 (3.2) 1 (3.2) 0.318 0.750 0.79–21.42
Stroop III 31 3 2 4 15 5 2 (6.5) 0 0.318 0.750 0.79–21.42
Stroop III/II 31 3 3 9 12 3 1 (3.2) 0 0.979 0.328 0.08–16.71
BRIEF A 30 3 3 3 18 2 1 (3.3) 0 0.943 0.346 0.08–17.21
Psychomotor speed VTS-S1-RT 29 4 3 9 9 3 0 1 (3.4 0.903 0.366 0.09–17.77
VTS-S1-MT 29 4 5 6 12 2 0 0 1.588 0.112 0.00–11.94
VTS-S3-RT 28 1 2 3 9 8 5 (17.8) 0 1.923 0.055 6.07–36.90
VTS-S3-MT 28 0 4 6 10 6 2 (7.1) 0 0.168 0.8668 0.88–23.50
  1. The frequency of borderline and impaired T scores from patients, defined as the percentage of T scores ≤36, were compared to the percentage of borderline and impaired T scores of the standardized norm group. As T scores of the standardized norm group follow a normal distribution, the percentage of borderline and impaired T scores in the standardized norm group equals 8%. Abbreviations: * p < 0.05 (two-tailed); CI confidence interval from the percentage borderline and impaired T scores, DR delayed recall, IR immediate recall, N number of patients, p p value, Rey VLT Rey Verbal Learning Test, TMT Trail Making Test, VMI Visual-Motor Integration, VTS-S1-MT Vienna Test System Subtest 1 Motor Time, VTS-S1-RT Vienna Test System Subtest 1 Mental Reaction Time, VTS-S3-MT Vienna Test System Subtest 3 Motor Time, VTS-S3-RT Vienna Test System Subtest 3 Mental Reaction Time, WMS VR Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Reproduction, Z z-statistic