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Table 3 T scores of adult male ALD patients compared to the standardized norm group (mean = 50)

From: Overall intact cognitive function in male X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy adults with normal MRI

Neuropsychological test per cognitive domain N Mean ± SD or median (range) p value
Language
 Letter fluency 33 45.70 ± 8.85 0.009*
 Similarities** 33 50 (30–58) 0.050
 Vocabulary 33 47.18 ± 8.00 0.051
Verbal memory
 REY AVLT IR 33 46.97 ± 10.41 0.104
 Rey AVLT DR 33 49.24 ± 10.05 0.668
 Rey AVLT DR/IR 33 51.52 ± 7.72 0.268
Non-verbal memory
 WMS VR IR** 32 50 (33–72) 0.421
 WMS VR DR 32 55.44 ± 9.00 0.002*
 WMS VR recognition** 32 58 (35–58) 0.001*
Visuoconstruction
 Beery VMI** 31 49 (19–64) 0.193
Executive functioning
 TMT A 31 57.29 ± 12.95 0.004*
 TMT B 31 53.55 ± 11.18 0.087
 TMT B/A 31 49.81 ± 9.32 0.909
 Stroop I** 32 48 (28–85) 0.172
 Stroop II 31 49.94 ± 10.34 0.973
 Stroop III 31 53.23 ± 11.14 0.117
 Stroop III/II 31 55.42 ± 10.59 0.008*
 BRIEF A** 30 51 (36–83) 0.186
Psychomotor Speed
 VTS-S1-RT 29 57.66 ± 12.04 0.002*
 VTS-S1-MT 29 58.10 ± 11.95 0.001*
 VTS-S3-RT 28 46.89 ± 10.72 0.137
 VTS-S3-MT 28 51.71 ± 10.92 0.414
  1. T scores of patients were compared to the standardized norm group. The distribution of T scores of the standardized norm group has a mean of 50, with a standard deviation of 10
  2. Abbreviations: * = p < 0.05 (two-tailed); ** = Non-normally distributed data; BRIEF-A Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version, DR delayed recall, IR immediate recall, M mean, N number of patients, p p value, RCFT Rey Complex Figure Test, SD standard deviation, TMT Trail Making Test, VMI Visual-Motor Integration, VTS-S1-MT Vienna Test System Subtest 1 Motor Reaction Time, VTS-S1-RT Vienna Test System Subtest 1 Mental Reaction Time, VTS-S3-MT Vienna Test System Subtest 3 Motor Reaction Time, VTS-S3-RT Vienna Test System Subtest 3 Mental Reaction Time, WMS VR Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Reproduction
  3. Normally distributed data is presented as mean ± standard deviation (range). Data that was not normally distributed is presented as median (range)