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Table 3 Cephalometric measurements for PWS individuals and control group under 12 years of age

From: Craniofacial and dentoalveolar morphology in individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome: a case-control study

Measurement   PWS < 12 years (n = 12) Control < 12 years (n = 47) Difference t-test
p value
Mean SD Mean SD
Basal sagittal
 n-s-ba Degree 129.2 7.0 131.3 3.2 − 2.1 0.14
 s-n-A Degree 81.1 5.3 81.1 2.8 0 0.98
 s-n-B Degree 76.1 5.5 78.1 2.8 − 2.0 0.08
 A-n-B Degree 5.0 2.4 3.1 1.9 + 1.9 0.003
 A ḻ n-pg mm 4.3 2.2 2.1 1.8 + 2.2 0.001
Basal vertical
 NL/NSL Degree 11.6 4.5 7.2 2.9 + 4.4 0.006
 ML/NSL Degree 35.9 7.4 31.3 3.7 + 4.6 0.003
 ML/NL Degree 24.3 7.6 24.1 3.7 + 0.2 0.87
 FA/n-ba Degree 88.2 5.4 92.6 3.2 − 4.4 0.001
Anterior face height
 n-sp mm 46.0 4.3 41.9 2.9 + 4.1 0.007
 sp-gn mm 57.7 6.1 53.6 3.6 + 4.1 0.003
 n-sp/sp-gn % 80.1 6.6 78.5 6.2 + 1.6 0.42
Dental
 Ii to A-pg mm 1.5 2.3 0.6 1.4 + 0.9 0.10
 ILi/A-pg Degree 20.7 4.1 18.4 5.8 + 2.3 0.24
 ILi/ML Degree 93.6 5.4 91.3 6.0 + 2.3 0.28
 Is to A-pg mm 4.5 3.5 3.6 1.9 + 0.9 0.28
 ILs/A-pg Degree 26.1 8.4 23.4 6.1 + 2.7 0.24
 ILs/NSL Degree 96.3 7.7 99.2 6.9 − 2.9 0.24
 ILi/ILs Degree 133.2 9.4 138.2 10.4 − 5.0 0.17
  1. Basal sagittal—n-s-ba: cranial base inclination, s-n-A: maxillary prognathism, s-n-B: mandibular prognathism, A-n-B: relative prognathism, A ḻ n-pg: facial convexity
  2. Basal vertical—NL/NSL: maxillary inclination, ML/NSL: mandibular inclination, ML/NL: mand./max. inclination, FA/n-ba: facial axis
  3. Anterior face height—n-sp: upper anterior face height, sp-gn: lower anterior face height, n-sp/sp-gn: ratio
  4. Dental—Ii to A-pg: lower incisor protrusion, ILi/A-pg: lower incisor inclination to A-pg, ILi/ML: lower incisor inclination to ML, Is to A-pg: upper incisor protrusion, ILs/A-pg: upper incisor inclination to A-pg, ILs/NSL: upper incisor inclination to NSL, ILi/ILs: interincisor angle