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Table 2 Landmarks and reference lines for linear and angular measurements in the lateral cephalogram

From: Craniofacial and dentoalveolar morphology in individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome: a case-control study

Basal sagittal   
n-s-ba Cranial base (nasion-sella-basion) Degree
s-n-A This angle represents the relative anteroposterior position of the maxilla to the cranial base Degree
s-n-B This angle represents the relative anteroposterior position of the mandible to the cranial base Degree
A-n-B This angle represents the relative anteroposterior position of the maxilla to the mandible and can be used to determine skeletal class relationship Degree
A ḻ n-pg Perpendicular distance between point A and line nasion-pogonion mm
NL/NSL The angle formed between the Maxillary Line (NL) and nasion-sella line Degree
ML/NSL The angle formed between the Mandibular Line (ML) and nasion-sella line Degree
ML/NL The angle formed between the Maxillary Line and Mandibular Line Degree
FA/n-ba Degree of convexity of the face Degree
n-sp Line between nasion and spina mm
sp-gn Line between spina and gnathion mm
N-sp/sp-gn Relationship between upper and lower face %
Dental   
 Ii to A-pg Distance from the incisal point of the mandibular incisors to the line A-pg mm
 Ili/A-pg Angle formed between line A-pg and the axis of the mandibular incisors Degree
 Ili/ML The angle between the mandibular plane and the axis of the mandibular incisors Degree
 Is to A-pg Distance from the incisal point of the maxillary incisors to the line A-pg mm
 Ils/A-pg The angle between line A-pg and the axis of the maxillary incisors Degree