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Table 2 Associations between country-level factors and SSc scientific output

From: Effects of socio-economic factors on research over systemic sclerosis: an analysis based on long time series of bibliometric data

  All countries HICs MICs LICs
Ln of GDP per capita 0.163
(− 0.012, 0.337)
− 0.028
(− 0.508, 0.451)
0.081
(− 0.104, 0.266)
− 0.043
(− 0.122, 0.035)
Ln of population 0.292***
(0.198, 0.385)
0.534***
(0.379, 0.689)
0.119*
(0.016, 0.222)
− 0.017
(− 0.047, 0.013)
Female population percentage 0.004
(− 0.029, 0.037)
0.019
(− 0.041, 0.079)
0.019
(− 0.107, 0.145)
− 0.020
(− 0.057, 0.018)
Voice and accountability 0.152
(− 0.029, 0.334)
− 0.022
(− 0.484, 0.441)
0.179
(− 0.011, 0.370)
0.027
(− 0.026, 0.080)
Government effectiveness − 0.125
(− 0.346, 0.095)
− 0.329
(− 0.727, 0.068)
0.018
(− 0.234, 0.271)
0.060
(− 0.055, 0.175)
Political stability and absence of violence/terrorism 0.006
(− 0.109, 0.121)
0.125
(− 0.091, 0.342)
− 0.100
(− 0.233, 0.033)
− 0.025
(− 0.075, 0.024)
Research and development expenditure (% of total GDP) 0.526***
(0.292, 0.760)
0.269*
(0.046, 0.492)
1.315***
(0.743, 1.887)
− 0.006
(− 0.123, 0.110)
Health expenditure (% of total GDP) 0.073**
(0.019, 0.127)
0.142***
(0.059, 0.224)
0.000
(− 0.062, 0.062)
− 0.004
(− 0.014, 0.005)
Rare disease legislation 0.395*
(0.094, 0.695)
0.306
(− 0.184, 0.797)
0.061
(− 0.250, 0.373)
NA
Number of countries 132 49 68 15
Number of observations 1442 694 659 89
  1. Panel regression analysis during 2000–2017 assessed association between country level indicators and SSc scientific output measured by ln of SSc publications on all countries with available data and within different income groups. The entries are regression coefficients (95% CI). With the legislation variable, value one was assigned to all countries with rare disease legislation and zero to others. The coefficient of legislation for LICs was omitted for none of the 14 countries had rare disease legislation. Year fixed effects were controlled in all regression analysis
  2. GDP gross domestic product, HICs high-income countries, LICs low-income countries, MICs middle-income countries, SSc systemic sclerosis
  3. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05