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Table 2 Distribution of parental QoL and mental health, and parent-reported HRQoL and mental health for the index group, the control group, and norm data of the ULQIE, BSI, PedsQL SF15, and SDQ

From: Quality of life and mental health of children with rare congenital surgical diseases and their parents during the COVID-19 pandemic

  Index group (a) Control group (b) Norm data (c) Differences Effect size
a versus b
Effect size
a versus c
M SD M SD M SD
Mothers
 QoL 2.3 0.31 2.6 0.52 2.6 0.53 a < b***; a < c*** − 0.82 − 1.17
 Mental health 0.5 0.48 0.3 0.24 0.4 0.23 a > b***; a > c** 0.52 0.27
 Children’s HRQoL 81.5 13.79 87.7 9.80 86.1 11.2 a < b***; a < c** − 0.49 − 0.33
 Children’s mental health 11.3 3.65 10.1 2.96 8.5 7.22 a > b*; a > c*** 0.33 0.75
Fathers
 QoL 2.4 0.30 2.8 0.60 2.6 0.53 a < b***; a < c*** − 1.02 − 0.96
 Mental health 0.3 0.28 0.3 0.37 0.3 0.23 a > b; a < c 0.07 − 0.05
 Children’s HRQoL 85.0 11.91 91.2 8.37 86.1 11.2 a < b***; a < c − 0.56 − 0.09
 Children’s mental health 11.1 4.01 10.2 3.53 8.5 7.22 a > b; a > c*** 0.24 0.65
  1. Comparison between groups is assessed with Welch t test and one-sample t test
  2. QoL quality of life, HRQoL health-related quality of life, ULQIE Ulm quality of life scale, BSI GSI brief symptom inventory—global severity index, PedsQL SF15 Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Short Form 15, SDQ strength and difficulties questionnaire
  3. *p ≤ .05; **p ≤ .01; ***p ≤ .001, d = Cohen’s d