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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: The development of early social cognitive skills in neurogenetic syndromes associated with autism: Cornelia de Lange, fragile X and Rubinstein–Taybi syndromes

  TD (n = 86) AUT (n = 20) CdLS (n = 22) FXS (n = 19) RTS (n = 18) p Post-hoc tests (p < 0.05)
Mean chronological age in months (SD) 22.03 (5.32) 104.18 (35.76) 77.98 (39.46) 71.70 (30.40) 110.61 (45.95)  < 0.01 TD < FXS, < AUT, RTS, TD < CdLS
Sex % female 47 30 59 0 50  < 0.01 FXS < AUT < TD, CdLS, RTS
Mean non-verbal mental age in months (SD)a 22.03 (5.32) 35.47 (18.77) 29.62* (13.67) 33.01 (10.42) 30.32** (9.52)  < 0.01 TD < AUT, CdLS, FXS, RTS
Mean non-verbal developmental quotient (SD)a NA 38.89 (27.90) 43.85* (16.45) 49.32 (13.95) 34.47** (21.51) 0.03 ASD, RTS < FXS
Mean adaptive behaviour age equivalent in months (SD)b NA NA 22.18 (13.06) 30.55 (13.64) 33.74 (15.53) 0.03 CdLS < FXS, RTS
Mean ADOS-2 Calibrated Severity Scores (SD) NA NA 4.38 (3.19)*** 6.17 (1.50) 4.88 (1.86) 0.08  
Mean Primary carer’s education level band (SD)c NA NA 4.15** (1.38) 4.17*** (1.20) 4.06 ** (1.34) 0.99  
Mean total annual family income band (SD)d NA NA 3.65** (1.93) 4.18** (1.59) 3.73* (2.05) 0.48  
  1. Significant p values indicating differences between groups are highlighted in bold
  2. Information not available for the relevant measure for: * three participants, ** two participants, *** one participant
  3. aAssessed using either the Mullen Scales of Early Learning [39] or the British Ability Scales 3rd edition [40]. Please see below for further information on how cognitive ability was assessed. TD children’s non-verbal mental age was inferred based on their chronological age
  4. bDerived by averaging the age equivalents across all Vineland-II subscales appropriate across the age range of participants i.e. receptive and expressive (communication domain), personal (daily living skills domain), and interpersonal relationships, play and leisure, and coping skill subscales (socialisation doman)[35]
  5. cParents indicated the band that best represented their level of educational qualifications of the primary caregiver. Education bands included (1) No formal education qualifications, (2) Fewer than 5 GCSE’s or O’Levels (grades A–C), NVQ1 or BTEC First Diploma, (3) 5 or more GCSEs or O Level’s (Grades A–C), NVQ2 or equivalent, (4) 3 or more ‘A’ Levels, NVQ3, BTEC National, or equivalent, (5) Polytechnic/University degree, NVG4, or equivalent, (6) Masters/Doctoral degree, NVQ5, or equivalent
  6. dParents indicated the band that best represented current total annual family income. Income bands included 1. Less than £15,000, 2. £15,001 to £25,000, 2. £25,001 to £35,000, 3. £35,001 to £45,000, 4. £45,001 to £55,000, 5. £55,001 to £65,000, 7. £65,001 or more