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Table 2 Functional abilities in PACS1-NDD by epilepsy diagnosis, and autism diagnosis

From: PACS1-Neurodevelopmental disorder: clinical features and trial readiness

  Total (N = 35) Epilepsy diagnosis (N = 17) No epilepsy diagnosis (N = 15)a P valueb Autism diagnosis (N = 12) Autism features (N = 11) No diagnosis (N = 8)c P valueb
Communication
Effectively communicates with everyone 1 (3%) 0 (0%) 1 (7%) 0.27 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (13%) 0.81
Effectively communicates with adults 11 (31%) 4 (24%) 6 (40%)   6 (50%) 2 (18%) 2 (25%)  
Effectively communicates with familiar people 7 (20%) 3 (18%) 3 (20%)   2 (17%) 3 (27%) 1 (13%)  
Inconsistently communicates 7 (20%) 4 (24%) 2 (13%)   2 (17%) 3 (27%) 2 (25%)  
Seldom communicates 2 (6%) 1 (6%) 1 (7%)   1 (8%) 0 (0%) 1 (13%)  
Fine motor
Holds large objects 4 (11%) 0 (0%) 4 (27%) 0.03 1 (8%) 1 (9%) 1 (13%) 1
Pincer grasp 27 (77%) 14 (82%) 10 (67%)   10 (83%) 9 (82%) 6 (75%)  
Gross motor
Median score (IQR, max = 10) 8.5 (8–9.8) 8 (7.25–9) 9 (8–10) 0.56 9 (7.5–9.5) 9 (8–9.8) 8 (7.5–9.5) 0.30
Academic skills
Yes 16 (46%) 6 (35%) 7 (47%) 1.00 7 (58%) 6 (55%) 3 (38%) 0.52
No 13 (37%) 6 (35%) 7 (47%)   4 (33%) 2 (18%) 4 (50%)  
Toileting
Independent 10 (29%) 3 (18%) 6 (40%) 0.12 2 (17%) 2 (18%) 3 (38%) 0.86
Partially dependent 11 (31%) 5 (29%) 6 (40%)   6 (50%) 1 (9%) 4 (50%)  
Completely dependent 7 (20%) 4 (24%) 1 (7%)   2 (17%) 3 (27%) 3 (38%)  
Eating
Independent 15 (43%) 6 (35%) 8 (53%) 0.69 6 (50%) 4 (36%) 4 (50%) 0.91
Some assistance 8 (23%) 4 (24%) 2 (13%)   3 (25%) 3 (27%) 1 (13%)  
Considerable assistance 2 (6%) 1 (6%) 1 (7%)   1 (8%) 0 (0%) 1 (13%)  
Dependent 4 (11%) 1 (6%) 3 (20%)   1 (8%) 1 (9%) 1 (13%)  
Nocturnal awakenings
6–7 nights/week 1 (3%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0.21 0 (0%) 1 (9%) 0 (0%) 0.97
3–5 nights/week 3 (9%) 2 (12%) 1 (7%)   3 (25%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
1–2 nights/week 7 (20%) 4 (24%) 2 (13%)   1 (8%) 3 (27%) 2 (25%)  
< 1 night/week 5 (14%) 2 (12%) 3 (20%)   3 (25%) 0 (0%) 2 (25%)  
Never 10 (29%) 3 (18%) 5 (33%)   3 (25%) 2 (18%) 4 (50%)  
  1. aDoes not include 3 who were unsure of epilepsy diagnosis
  2. bMantel–Haenszel χ2 for trend
  3. cDoes not include 1 who was unsure of autism diagnosis