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Table 3 Management of cardiomyopathies (CMP) and ion channel diseases (ICD), according to phenotype and etiology

From: COVID-19 pandemia and inherited cardiomyopathies and channelopathies: a short term and long term perspective

INHERITED CARDIAC DISEASEMANAGEMENT
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)Avoid dehydration in obstructive HCM (fever, diarrhea)
QT monitoring, especially in patients on dysopiramide (Covid 19 therapies)
Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM)Balance fluid and electrolyte intake according to clinical status (fever, diarrhea)
QT monitoring (Covid 19 therapies)
Exclude new onset arrhythmias (palpitations) HF (dyspnoea)
Do not stop ACE-i and ARBs (consider that ACE-i worse cough)
Hospital admission if progressive symptoms
Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy (AC)QT monitoring, especially in patient on sotalol (Covid 19 therapies)
Exclude new onset arrhythmias (palpitations) HF (dyspnoea)
Hospital admission if progressive symptoms
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy (RCM)As DCM
Noncompaction (NC)As DCM
Myocarditis/Inflammatory CardiomyopathyAs DCM
EMB should be considered to exclude specific treatment
Childhood CardiomyopathiesAvoid dehydration and balance fluid and electrolyte intake according to clinical status (fever, diarrhea)
No specific Covid 19 treatment required in most cases
Genetic SyndromesIncreased risk of bleeding in patients with Noonan syndrome/rasopathies and coagulation factors deficits (Covid 19 therapies)
Neuromucular DiseaseECG monitoring: bradyarrhythmias, AV blocks, prolonged QT (Covid 19 therapies)
Mitochondrial DiseaseLactic acidosis crisis, hypoglycemia, fatigue, rabdomyolisis (fever, diarrhea, Covid 19 therapies)
ECG monitoring: bradyarrhythmias, AV blocks, prolonged QT (Covid 19 therapies)
Hospital admission if progressive symptoms/crisis
Glycogen Storage DiseaseMetabolic crisis, fatigue, cramps (fever, diarrhea, Covid 19 therapies)
ECG monitoring: bradyarrhythmias, AV blocks, prolonged QT (Covid 19 therapies)
Lysosomal Storage DiseaseSymptoms worsening (i.e. Fabry crisis; fever, diarrhea)
ECG monitoring: bradyarrhythmias, AV blocks, prolonged QT (Covid 19 therapies)
Consider “home therapy” for enzyme replacement therapies (ERTs)
AmyloidosesECG monitoring: bradyarrhythmias, AV blocks, prolonged QT (Covid 19 therapies)
Clinical status may worsen (Covid 19 therapy)
Consider to stop specific therapy protocol in AL
Tafamidis (TTR) can worsen cough
Long QT Syndrome (LQTS)QT prolungation (Covid 19 therapy)
Consider hospitalization in high risk patients
Short QT Syndrome (SQTS)QT prolungation (Covid 19 therapy)
Brugada Syndrome (BS)Type 1 BS pattern (fever)
Consider hospitalization in high risk patients
Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricualr Tachicardia (CPVT)Epinephrine in patients who require haemodynamic support is proarrhythmic
Consider hospitalization in high risk patients
SCN5A DiseaseType 1 BS pattern (fever)
Risk of bradyarrhythmias/AV blocks (Covid 19 therapy)
Consider hospitalization in high risk patients