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Table 2 Cognitive performance of the PKU group (English and Italian PKU participants; N = 56). Z scores calculated from respective control groups (N = 30 and N = 19). To facilitate interpretation, for all scores, higher Z-score reflect worse performance. Scores in bold are significantly higher than expected. ms. = milliseconds; sec. = seconds

From: Adult cognitive outcomes in phenylketonuria: explaining causes of variability beyond average Phe levels

 PKU Overall Z score
MeanSDDiff from controls (t-test)
IQ0.81.3p < .001
Visual attention RTs
 Simple Detection - ms.0.31n.s.
 Detention with Distractors – ms.0.81.6p < .01
 Feature Search – ms.1.52.3p < .001
 Conjunction Search m.1.21.7p < .001
Visual attention accuracy
 Detention with Distractors - % errors0.21n.s.
 Feature Search - % errors0.22.6n.s
 Conjunction Search - % errors−0.10.8n.s
Visuo-motor coordination
 Pegboard (sec.)0.91.9p < .01
 Digit Symbol (%errors in 90 s.)0.71.2p < .01
 Trail-Making Test A: (sec.)0.81.9p < .01
Executive functions
  WCST
 Total errors0.41.6n.s.
 Perseverative responses0.11.1n.s.
 N of Completed Categories0.51.9p = .06
Trail-Making Tests
 B (sec.)0.61.5p = .01
 B-A (sec.)0.51.7p = .06
Verbal Fluency
 Letter (correct answers)0.61p < .01
 Semantic (correct answers)0.81.3p < .001
Short term memory
 Digit span0.31.1n.s.
 Corsi Block span0.01.1n.s.
Sustained attention
 RVP (% of errors)0.71.3p < .01
Learning
Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test
 Trial A1-A5 (% errors)0.21.2n.s.
 Retention (% errors A6)0.31.4n.s.
 Delayed Recall (% errors)0.31.3n.s.
Paired Associate Visual learning
 (% errors)0.71.9p = .02
Overall (excluding IQ)
 Mean0.50.8p < .001