Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 9 Associations between ARM and maternal use of sexual hormones

From: Maternal drug use and the risk of anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

  Maternal use of sexual hormones  
Ref. First author, year Exposure ORcrude [95% CI] ORadj [95% CI] Adjustment/matching factors
[55] Reefhuis, 2011 Clomiphene citrate 1.2 [0.6, 2.3] 1.2 [0.6, 2.3] Maternal age, maternal race, parity, previous miscarriages, maternal education, smoking, alcohol use, obesity, and folic acid use
[72] Stoll, 1997 Estrogens 0.1 [0.03, 0.63]