Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 5 Associations between ARM and maternal use of psychiatric drugs

From: Maternal drug use and the risk of anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

  Maternal use of psychiatric drugs  
Ref. First author, year Exposure ORcrude [95% CI] ORadj [95% CI] Adjustment/matching factors
[52] Furu, 2015 Any SSRI 1.5 [0.95, 2.37] 1.4 [0.88, 2.32] Maternal age, year of birth, birth order, smoking, maternal diabetes, and country, and use of other prescribed drugs (antiepileptics, anxiolytics and hypnotics, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors)
Sertraline 2.8 [1.33, 5.92] 2.5 [1.09, 5.57]
Citalopram 1.6 [0.70, 3.48] 1.5 [0.64, 3.25]
[50] Wemakor, 2015 Any SSRI 2.5 [1.06, 5.68] Registry
Fluoxetine 2.6 [0.60, 10.91]
Paroxetine 2.8 [0.66, 11.96]
Citalopram 2.2 [0.29, 16.63]
Sertraline
Escitalopram 6.0 [0.73, 49.62]
[76] Källén, 2013 Opioids
Anticonvulsants 2.9 [0.96, 6.86]a  
Neurolepticsb  
Dixyrazine or prochlorperazine  
Sedatives or hypnotics 1.2 [0.33, 3.06]a  
Antidepressants 1.2 [0.66, 2.10]  
[54] Polen, 2013 Antidepressantsc
Venlafaxinec  
[56] Reis and Källén, 2010 Antidepressants 1.1 [0.40, 2.36]a
[68] Alwan, 2007 Any SSRI 1.0 [0.4, 2.0] 0.7 [0.3, 1.8] Maternal race or ethnic group, presence or absence of maternal obesity, presence or absence of maternal smoking, and family income
[64] Louik, 2007 Any SSRI 1.9 [0.8, 4.3] Maternal age, maternal race or ethnic group (self-reported), maternal education, year of last menstrual period/study center (a composite variable), parity, first-trimester smoking status, first-trimester alcohol consumption, any family history of a birth defect, history of a cardiac defect in a first-degree relative, prepregnancy body-mass index, seizures, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, infertility, any use of folic acid, and first-trimester use of folic acid
Fluoxetine 1.4 [0.3, 6.1]
Paroxetine 1.0 [0.1, 7.8]
Citalopram 3.0 [0.3, 28.2]
Sertraline 4.4 [1.2, 16.4]
Non-SSRI antidepressant 2.2 [0.6, 7.8]
[65] Czeizel, 2003 Diazepam in entire pregnancy
Diazepam in second-third months
of gestation
2.2 [1.2, 3.9] 1.9 [1.1, 3.3]
10.0 [1.3, 78.1] 5.2 [1.4, 19.7]  
[43] Bonnot, 2001 Lorazepam 6.2 [2.44, 15.74] Maternal age and parity
  1. SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  2. aRisk Ratio (RR)
  3. bNeuroleptics other than dixyrazine or prochloperazine
  4. cOnly one case was exposed to antidepressants