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Table 3 Associations between ARM and maternal use of asthma medication

From: Maternal drug use and the risk of anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

  Maternal use of asthma medication  
Ref. First author, year Exposure ORcrude [95% CI] ORadj [95% CI] Adjustment/matching factors
[73] Garne, 2015 Any anti-asthma medication 1.6 [1.08, 2.51]b Registry and maternal age
2.0 [1.30, 3.20]c
Beta-2-agonists in general 1.5 [0.84, 2.66]b Center, maternal age and use of inhaled corticosteroids
1.5 [0.79, 2.93]c
Inhaled beta-2-agonists 1.7 [1.08, 2.80] 1.5 [0.85, 2.68]b Center, maternal age and use of corticosteroids
2.3 [1.39, 3.75] 1.8 [0.92, 3.44]c
1.8 [1.11, 2.87]b Center, maternal age
2.1 [1.26, 3.54]c
1.5 [0.85, 2.69]b Center, maternal age, systemic steroids and use of corticosteroids
1.5 [0.79, 2.94]c
1.5 [0.83, 2.63]b Center, maternal age, period (5-year intervals) and use of corticosteroids
1.8 [0.92, 3.45]c
1.2 [0.35, 3.73]b,f Center, maternal age, period (5-year intervals) and use of corticosteroids
0.8 [0.23, 2.76]c,f
Inhaled corticosteroids 2.0 [1.10, 3.51] 1.5 [0.74, 3.02]b Center, maternal age and use of beta-2-agonists
3.3 [1.81, 5.98] 1.7 [0.73, 3.77]c
2.0 [1.09, 3.48]b Center, maternal age
2.8 [1.48, 5.17]c
1.5 [0.74, 3.03]b Center, maternal age, systemic steroids and use of beta-2-agonists
2.1 [0.94, 4.51]c
1.5 [0.75, 3.07]b Center, maternal age, period (5-year intervals) and use of beta-2-agonists
1.6 [0.72, 3.73]c
1.2 [0.31, 4.68]b,f Center, maternal age, period (5-year intervals) and use of beta-2-agonists
2.7 [0.78, 9.58]c,f
1.3 [0.41, 4.06]a,b,f
Combination treatments 1.0 [0.31, 3.24]b Center, maternal age and use of short-acting beta-2-agonists
1.4 [0.43, 4.28]c
Salbutamol 1.6 [0.87, 2.88]b Center, maternal age and use of inhaled corticosteroids
1.5 [0.78, 3.04]c
[53] Zwink and Choinitzki, 2015 Any anti-asthma medication 0.8 [0.02, 29.50]d
0.3 [0.01, 16.63]e   
[67] Yau, 2013 Pseudoephedrine 1.3 [0.8, 2.3] Matched and adjusted for further factors (not specified)
[59] Lin, 2012 Anti-inflammatory use 2.1 [1.09, 4.12] Age, parity, race/ethnicity, education, alcohol use, smoking, gender, folic acid use, fever in first trimester
Bronchodilator use 0.9 [0.38, 2.01]
[42] Källén and Otterblad Olausson, 2007 Any anti-asthma medication 1.7 [1.11, 2.56] Year of birth, maternal age, parity, smoking, and number of previous miscarriages
Inhaled corticosteroids 1.9 [1.00, 3.22]
Salbutamol 1.5 [0.50, 3.60g
Terbutaline 1.5 [0.82, 2.52]g
Salmeterol 2.5 [0.52, 7.37]g
Budesonide 1.9 [0.95, 3.42]g
  1. aNew calculated in this systematic review and meta-analysis
  2. bARM vs. non-chromosomal anomaly control group
  3. cARM vs. chromosomal anomaly control group
  4. dCompared to patients with isolated esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula
  5. eCompared to patients with the combined phenotype of esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula and anorectal malformation
  6. fCases with no other multiple malformation only (isolated)
  7. gRisk Ratio (RR)