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Table 2 A summary of selected biologics used to treat uveitis in Behçet’s Disease, their targets, doses, routes of administration and side effects

From: An update on the use of biologic therapies in the management of uveitis in Behçet’s disease: a comprehensive review

Agent Target Route of administration Typical dosage Adverse effects Price of typical course of treatment for Behçet’s uveitis (£GBP)a
Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) inhibitors [41]
 Infliximab TNF-α Intravenous Loading course of 3 × 3-5 mg/kg doses at 2-week intervals, followed by maintenance doses of 5-10 mg/kg at 4-week intervals [38] Heart failure (congestive), infections, (particularly reactivation of tuberculosis), malignancy, thromboembolism, lupus-like disease, hypersensitivity reactions, neoplasia 80,776.85
 Adalimumab TNF-α Subcutaneous 40 mg injection at 2-week intervals [38] 15,476.53
 Etanercept TNF-α, β Subcutaneous 25 mg subcutaneously twice weekly [42] 9295.00
 Golimumab TNF-α Subcutaneous 50 mg every month [38] 9115.64
Specific receptor antagonists
 Canakinumab IL-1β Intravenous or subcutaneous 150 mg at 4–8 week intervals [39] Infections, nausea, abdominal discomfort 119,133.60
 Tocilizumab IL-6 receptor Intravenous 4-12 mg/kg at 2–4 week intervals [38, 43,44,45] Infections and hypersensitivity reactions 1638.40
 Anakinra IL-1 receptor Subcutaneous 1 mg/kg/day [38] Infections, injection-site reaction, headache, fever and gastrointestinal disturbance 4466.14
 Gevokizumab IL-1β Intravenous or subcutaneous 0.3 mg/kg single infusion [38] Infections and hypersensitivity reactions n/ab
Lymphocyte Inhibitors
 Rituximab B-cells via CD20 Intravenous 2 doses of 1 g 15 days apart [46] Infections, muscular spasms, gastrointestinal discomfort, headaches and cardiovascular events 3492.60
 Interferon α Non-specific Subcutaneous 6–9 MIU/day for 7 days, tapered down to 3 MIU 3 times a week and then discontinued [47] Flu-like symptoms, bone marrow suppression, injection-site reaction 4132.20
  1. aPrices calculated according to recommended standard treatment dose and duration of course for a 70 kg patient as prescribed and tested in up to date literature. Price as per BNF 70 [Joint formulary committee. British National Formulary. BNF 70 ed. London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press; September 2015]
  2. bNo pricing is available