Skip to main content

Table 1 A summary of conventional systemic immunosuppressive agents used to treat non-infectious uveitis

From: An update on the use of biologic therapies in the management of uveitis in Behçet’s disease: a comprehensive review

Medication Mechanism Typical dosage Adverse effects Price of typical one-year course of treatment for Behçet’s uveitis (£GBP)a
T-cell inhibitors
 Cyclosporine T-cell function inhibitor 2.5–10 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses Infections, nephrotoxicity, hypertension, hirsutism and gingival hyperplasia 1111.43–4130.59
 Tacrolimus T-cell function inhibitor 0.15–0.30 mg/kg/day PO Infections, nephrotoxicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and electrolyte imbalance 5468.43–7358.40
 Methotrexate Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor 7.5–25 mg/week PO, SC, or IM Infections, hepatotoxicity, oral ulcers, fatigue, alopecia, bone marrow suppression, pneumonitis, fetal loss and gastrointestinal disturbance 2271.36–4680.00
 Azathioprine Purine metabolism inhibitor 1–4 mg/kg/day PO Infections, hepatotoxicity, fatigue, bone marrow suppression, hypersensitivity and gastrointestinal disturbance 120.34–174.98
 Mycophenolate mofetil Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor 500–1500 mg PO twice daily Infections, bone marrow suppression, and gastrointestinal disturbance 620.50–1861.50
 Leflunomide Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor 100 mg PO daily [×3 days], then 20 mg PO daily or every other day Infections, bone marrow suppression, diarrhoea, hypertension and fetal loss 373.27–746.54
Alkylating agents
 Chlorambucil Alkylates nucleic acid 0.1–0.2 mg/kg/day PO Infections, bone marrow suppression, increased risk of malignancy, and sterility 2365.78–4731.57
 Cyclophosphamide Alkylates nucleic acid 1–3 mg/kg/day PO Infections, bone marrow suppression, hemorrhagic cystitis, increased risk of malignancy, sterility, and alopecia 1014.70–2029.40
 Colchicine Inhibits neutrophil motility 0.5–2 mg/day PO Infections, peripheral neuropathy, bone marrow suppression, sterility and alopecia 265.54–1062.15
  1. a Prices calculated according to recommended maintenance dose for one year of therapy for a 70 kg patient as prescribed and tested in up to date literature. Price as per BNF 70 [Joint formulary committee. British National Formulary. BNF 70 ed. London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press; September 2015]