Skip to main content

Table 2 Neuropsychiatric symptoms and neuropsychological test performances in the premanifest and the motor manifest gene-expansion carriers

From: A clinical classification acknowledging neuropsychiatric and cognitive impairment in Huntington’s disease

  Premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers Motor manifest HD gene-expansion carriers Level of significance
N = 51 N = 56 p-value
Neuropsychiatric scales    
SCL-90-R a    
  Global Severity Index 49.6 (10.1) 53.6(10.2) 0.041
  Somatization 50.5 (9.7) 50.5 (9.9) 0.979
  Obsessive-compulsive 49.5 (10.3) 57.25 (10.2) <0.001
  Interpersonal Sensitivity 47.9 (10.5) 51.2 (12.0) 0.134
  Depression 49.3 (10.5) 54.0 (9.0) 0.014
  Anxiety 50.1 (10.9) 53.0 (9.46) 0.141
  Anger-hostility 53.3 (11.6) 52.8 (12.7) 0.848
  Phobic anxiety 50.7 (11.1) 55.1 (12.8) 0.059
  Paranoid ideation 47.4 (9.7) 47.2 (9.6) 0.915
  Psychoticism 47.8 (9.2) 53.4 (10.9) 0.005
  Positive Symptoms Total 49.9 (10.0) 52.6 (9.1) 0.142
  Positive Symptoms Distress Index 52.6 (10.3) 55.7 (10.8) 0.141
HAM-17 b 4.5 (4.6) 5.8 (3.7) 0.103
Neuropsychological tests    
Trail Making Test A (seconds) 22.8 (5.2) 45.3 (21.2) <0.001
Trail Making Test B (seconds) 62.2 (16.7) 131.8 (55.5) <0.001
Symbol Digit Modalities Test (number correct) 49.6 (8.1) 28.3 (9.4) <0.001
Stroop interference (seconds) 119.0 (21.0) 193.5 (77.3) <0.001
Category verbal fluency 24.1 (4.2) 16.6 (6.4) <0.001
Lexical fluency, s-words 14.5 (3.9) 10.7 (5.1) <0.001
Lexical fluency, a-words 9.4 (3.9) 5.7 (3.1) <0.001
Reys Complex Figure Test, recall 24.3 (6.3) 18.3 (6.0) <0.001
Reys Complex Figure Test, copy 35.6 (1.0) 34.0 (2.4) <0.001
Block design (number correct) 11.9 (0.4) 10.8 (1.8) <0.001
Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices 9.5 (1.7) 6.5 (2.6) <0.001
Selective Reminding Test, immediate recall (number of errors) 12.49 (7.9) 28.17 (11.6) <0.001
Selective Reminding Test, delayed recall 7.57 (1.7) 6.02 (2.1) <0.001
  1. aSymptom Checklist-90-R. Data shown as mean (SD). p values were calculated by independent sample t-tests. bHamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17.