IL-6 family cytokines that signal through the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR). After cytokine binding, LIFR associates with gp130 to initiate the JAK/STAT1 or JAK/STAT3 pathway. In some cases, the SHP2/RAS/MAPK pathway is initiated. Oncostatin-M (OSM) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) bind to LIFR without any other associated receptors. Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) binds to another receptor which associates with LIFR/gp130. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) first binds to its receptor (CNTFR), which then recruits LIFR, followed by gp130. Cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor-1 (CLCF-1) binds with either cytokine receptor-like factor-1 (CRLF-1) or soluble ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (sCNTFR) before binding to CNTFR.