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Table 1 Factors influencing the natural course of emphysema in patients with AATD

From: Augmentation therapy for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: towards a personalised approach

Intrinsic factors:
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness [29]
Bronchodilator reversibility [9, 14, 19, 30]
Infections in childhood [31]
Exacerbations [14, 19, 32]
Pneumonia [29, 33]
Chronic bronchitis [29, 30, 34]
Lower body mass index [14, 35]
Extrinsic factors:
Smoking [9, 29, 30]
Professional exposure to dusts and fumes [36, 37]
Air pollution [38]