Elastin expression analysis of the umbilical cord from SIOD and unaffected fetuses at 15-weeks gestation. Note that the immunohistochemical analysis shows marked discontinuity and reduced expression of elastin in the internal elastic lamina in SD133b compared to that of 2 age-matched controls. This difference in expression of elastin precedes the development of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and renal disease. Abbreviations: A, artery; V, vein. Scale bars: 50 μm.