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Table 8 Associations between periconceptional exposures to occupational hazard

From: Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

   Maternal occupational hazard*   Paternal occupational hazard**  
Ref.    First author, year Exposure OR [95% CI] Exposure OR [95% CI] Adjustment/matching factors
[39]    van Rooij, 2010 Industrial cleaning agents and solvents
Cytostatics
X-rays
2.9 [0.9, 9.3]
1.5 [0.3, 6.9]
0.6 [0.1, 2.6]
   Adjusted for: family history of ARM and paternal smoking
-
Adjusted for: maternal multivitamin use
     Industrial cleaning agents and solvents
Paint/varnish/adhesives/ink/thinner
Welding fumes
Exhaust fumes
0.6 [0.2, 1.7]
1.4 [0.6, 3.7]
1.3 [0.5, 3.3]
1.9 [1.0, 3.6]
Adjusted for: family history of ARM,
maternal BMI before pregnancy, paternal smoking
and paternal job exposure to exhaust fumes
Adjusted for: family history of ARM
Adjusted for: family history of ARM
and paternal job exposure to exhaust fumes
-
[35]    Herdt-Losavio, 2010 Janitors, cleaners
Scientists
1.82 [1.06, 3.10]***
2.38 [1.24, 4.55]***
- - Adjusted for: study centre, folic acid use,
maternal age at delivery, maternal pre-pregnancy
BMI, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal education,
parity, maternal smoking and maternal alcohol use
during the first trimester
[38]    Stoll, 1997 X-rays 0.19 [0.09, 0.38] - - -
[29]    Schnitzer, 1995 - - Carpenters, woodworkers
Electricians, electrical workers
2.4 [0.7, 8.5]
1.7 [0.6, 5.0]
Matched for: race, year and hospital of birth
Matched for: see above
     Printers
Policemen, guards
Vehicle manufacturers
2.9 [0.8, 10.2]
2.9 [0.8, 9.9]
5.1 [1.3, 19.2]
Adjusted for: maternal age and education
Adjusted for: see above
Adjusted for: see above
[28]    Matte, 1993 Nursing occupations 2.15 [0.83, 5.58] - - -
  1. * Job exposure during pregnancy
  2. ** Job exposure 3 months before conception
  3. *** Job exposure 1 month prior to conception through the end of the third month of pregnancy
  4. † Exposure to X-ray examinations