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Table 5 Associations between periconceptional exposures to illicit drugs

From: Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

   Maternal illicit drug use   
Ref.    First author, year Exposure OR [95% CI] Adjustment/matching factors
[41]    van Gelder, 2009* Cannabis use
Cocaine use
0.7 [0.4, 1.2]
0.4 [0.1, 2.7]
Adjusted for: maternal age at delivery, race or ethnicity, level of education, cigarette smoking, binge drinking, pregnancy BMI and periconceptional folic acid use
   Stimulant use 1.1 [0.3, 3.8] Adjusted for: maternal age at delivery, level of education, binge drinking, pregnancy BMI and periconceptional folic acid use
[1]    Forrester, 2007§† Methamphetamine use
Cocaine use
Marijuana use
3.19 [0.87, 11.73]
6.01 [1.05, 34.27]
10.57 [2.87, 38.96]
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  1. * Exposures at any time between one month before pregnancy and the end of the third month of pregnancy (periconceptional period).
  2. § Exposures during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery.
  3. † Study reported on the ratio of the rate of illicit drug use among birth defect cases to the rate of illicit drug use among all deliveries. *We calculated the corresponding OR by data given in the article.