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Table 1 Case-control and cross-sectional studies reporting on the association of ARM and environmental risk factors

From: Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

   Study population      
    No. participants     
Ref.    First author, year Country Cases Controls Age range Setting, control type Data acquisition (period) Assessed risk factor(s)
[25]    Bánhidy, 2010 Hungary 231 38,151 < 19 - > 35 population-based,
no birth defects
data from the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance
of Congenital Abnormalities (1980-1996)
diabetes
[26]    Blomberg, 2010¥ Sweden 401 1,049,181 < 20 - ≥45 population-based,
all infants
data from the Swedish
Medical Birth Registries (1995-2007)
overweight/obesity
[35]    Herdt-Losavio, 2010 USA 328 3,833 < 20 - ≥35 multistate population-based,
no birth defects
data from the National Birth Defects
Prevention Study (NBDPS) (1997-2003)
occupational hazard
[39]    van Rooij, 2010 Netherlands 85 650 ≥35 hospital-based,
no major birth defects
questionnaire (1996-2008) smoking, alcohol, overweight/obesity,
occupational hazard
[37]    Miller, 2009 USA 464,
216#
4,940 ≤ 19 - ≥35 multistate population-based,
no major birth defects
data from the National Birth Defects
Prevention Study (NBDPS) (1997-2003)
smoking, alcohol, caffeine
[41]    van Gelder, 2009 USA 456-468 4,967 < 20 - ≥35 multistate population-based,
no major birth defects
data from the National Birth Defects
Prevention Study (NBDPS), collected by
telephone interview (1997-2003)
illicit drugs of mothers
(between one month before pregnancy
and the end of the third month of pregnancy)
[34]    Correa, 2008 USA 230
200#
4,689 < 20 - ≥35 multistate population-based,
no major birth defects
data from the National Birth Defects
Prevention Study (NBDPS) (1997-2003)
diabetes
[1]    Forrester, 2007 USA 162 316,346 N.A. state-wide population-based,
all live births
data from the Hawaii Birth Defects
Program (HBDP), collected through review
of medical records (1986-2002)
illicit drugs of mothers (during
pregnancy and 1 year after delivery)
[32]    Frías, 2007¥ USA 417Δ,
427ΔΔ
29,722Δ,
30,509ΔΔ
N.A. hospital-based,
other malformed infants
data from the Spanish Collaborative Study of
Congenital Malformations (ECEMC) (1976-2005)
diabetes
[40]    Waller, 2007 USA 380,
77#
4,065 < 18 - ≥35 multistate population-based,
no birth defects
data from the National Birth Defects
Prevention Study (NBDPS) (1997-2002)
overweight/obesity
[7]    Correa, 2003 USA 56,
32#
3,029 < 20 - ≥30 population-based,
no birth defects
data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital
Defects Program (MACDP) (1968-1980)
diabetes
[24]    Aberg, 2001 Sweden 15 600 N.A. population-based,
other malformed infants
data from the Swedish
Medical Birth Registries (1987-1997)
diabetes
[31]    Honein, 2001 USA 564 6,160,942 < 30 - ≥30 population-based,
all live births
US public-use natality data tapes
(National Vital Statistics System, National
Centre for Health Statistics) (1997-1998)
smoking
[36]    Martínez-Frías, 1998¥ Spain 227 19,377 N.A. hospital-based,
other malformed infants
data from the Spanish Collaborative Study of
Congenital Malformations (ECEMC) (1976-1995)
diabetes
[38]    Stoll, 1997 France 108,
51#
108 F: mean age 26.9,
M: mean age 29.9
hospital-based,
no birth defects
interview (1979-1995) smoking, alcohol, diabetes,
X-ray examinations
[27]    Cornel, 1996 Netherlands 52 3,962 ≤ 20 - ≥40 population-based,
other malformed infants
data from the Northern Netherlands
(NNL) (1981-1994)
smoking
[29]    Schnitzer, 1995 USA 70 2,279 F: < 20 - ≥40,
M: < 20 - ≥45
population-based,
no birth defects
data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital
Defects Program (MACDP) (1968-1980)
occupational hazard
[30]    Yuan, 1995 Japan 84,
49#
174 F: 29.1 ± 4.9,
M: 32.1 ± 5.6
population-based,
no birth defects
data from the Kanangawa Birth Defects
Monitoring Program (KAMP) (1989-1994)
smoking, alcohol
[43]    Martínez-Frías, 1994¥ Spain 196 18,563 N.A. hospital-based,
other malformed infants
data from the Spanish Collaborative Study of
Congenital Malformations (ECEMC) (1976-1992)
diabetes
[28]    Matte, 1993 USA 103 2,403 < 20 - > 35 population-based,
no birth defects
data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital
Defects Program (MACDP) (1968-1980)
occupational hazard
[33]    Shiono, 1986 USA 14 578 N.A. population-based,
other malformed infants
data from the Kaiser-Permanente
Birth Defects Study (1974-1977)
smoking
[42]    Angerpointer, 1981 Germany 78
78
78
78
210*
169**
75***
53****
< 20 - > 40 hospital-based,
other malformed infants
questionnaire (1970-1974) smoking
  1. # ARM infants with isolated (no additional major defects) anomaly
  2. † The Swedish Medical Birth Registry, the Swedish Register of Birth Defects (previously called the Registry of Congenital Malformations) and the National Patient Register (previously called the Hospital Discharge Registry)
  3. ‡ Difference in case and control period: cases 1996-2008, controls 1996-2004
  4. Δ ARM infants for the examination of maternal pre-gestational diabetes
  5. ΔΔ ARM infants for the examination of maternal gestational diabetes
  6. * Control group includes 41 infants with esophageal atresia, 41 with stenosis/atresia of the small and large bowel, 75 with Hirschsprung's disease, 28 with omphalocele and 25 with gastroschisis
  7. ** Control group includes 41 infants with esophageal atresia, 75 with Hirschsprung's disease, 28 with omphalocele and 25 with gastroschisis
  8. *** Control group includes 75 infants with Hirschsprung's disease
  9. **** Control group includes 28 infants with omphalocele and 25 with gastroschisis
  10. ¥ Cross-sectional study
  11. M = male; F = female; BMI = body mass index; N.A. = not available