a) Low-magnification photomicrograph of UIP showing the characteristic heterogeneous involvement of the parenchyma. Zones of interstitial fibrosis are seen alternating with areas of normal lung. b) Higher-magnification demonstrates enlarged cystic airspaces lined with hyperplastic alveolar epithelium (arrowheads). Beneath the mucosal layer is an advancing region of young fibrosis containing loose extracellular matrix (pale pink staining) and fibroblasts (arrows). * Reprinted from Fishman's Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, 4th edition 2007. Meltzer, EB and Noble, PW: Chapter 70, Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. With permission from McGraw-Hill Companies.