Skip to main content

Table 3 SV40 in poliomyelitis virus vaccines in European countries

From: Mesothelioma mortality in Europe: impact of asbestos consumption and simian virus 40

Country Rating of contamination of polio vaccines with SV40 Vaccines, vaccination programs and origin of vaccines
Albania Positive Contaminated Russian vaccine (OPV) used since 1960 [86-90].
Austria Negative Mass vaccinations with SV40-free British vaccine (OPV) since winter 1961/62 [91-92].
Bulgaria Positive Contaminated Russian vaccine (OPV) used since 1960 [86-90].
CSSR Positive Since 1960: limited use of IPV, mass vaccinations with OPV, partly with contaminated Russian vaccine [86-90,93-94].
Denmark Positive Vaccinations from 1955 with widely contaminated Danish vaccine (IPV), SV40-free from 1963 [95]. A combined schedule was introduced in 1968 [96].
Finland Negative Mass vaccinations since 1957 with SV40-free Belgium vaccine (IPV) [19]. Finland has never used OPV on a routine basis [96].
Germany East Positive Contaminated Russian vaccine (OPV) used since 1960 [55, 87-90, 97].
Hungary Positive Since 1957: limited use of IPV, mass vaccinations with vaccines from the US, Canada, Hungary and Russia (also OPV) [87-90].
Norway Positive Vaccinations started 1956 with Danish vaccine (IPV); since 1957 potentially contaminated U.S. vaccine (IPV) [98], change to OPV from 1967 to 1979, then back to IPV from 1979 onwards [96].
Poland Unclear Mass vaccinations (OPV) since 1958 with Koprowski strain live vaccine [94]; vaccine was claimed to be Russian made [99], but Russian vaccines were derived from Sabin's strain [86].
Russia (USSR) Positive Mass vaccinations since 1959 with contaminated Russian vaccine (OPV). A small proportion of persons were vaccinated with IPV at the beginning of the mass vaccinations. [86-90, 100].
Spain Unclear Mass vaccinations since 1963 with British vaccine (OPV) [101]; British vaccines were SV40-free since 1962 [102]; in contrast some vaccines were later claimed to have been contaminated [103].
Sweden Positive In 1957 potentially contaminated U.S. vaccine (IPV), from 1958 SV40-free Swedish vaccine (IPV). Sweden has never used OPV [96].
Turkey Negative Vaccination was not started before 1970, at a time where polio vaccines were required to be SV40-free [20, 24]. The type of the vaccine is unclear. In a global poliomyelitis eradication initiative starting in 1989, OPV was used.
United Kingdom Positive Vaccination started in 1956 with OPV [104-105]. SV40-free since 1962 [102].
  1. CSSR: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic; OPV: oral polio vaccine; IPV: inactivated polio vaccine.