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Table 1 Etiology and diagnostic tools in Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)

From: Cardiomyopathy, familial dilated

Causes % of cases Diagnostic tools
Frequent   
Idiopathic/Familial DCM 20 – 50 family history, echocardiogram, detailed evaluation of first degree relatives, coronary angiography, endomyocardial biopsy
Ischemic DCM 50 – 70 history, coronary angiography
Valvular DCM 1.5 – 4 echocardiogram, physical exam
Hypertensive DCM 2 – 4 physical exam, echocardiogram showing hypertrophy
Alcoholic 3 – 40 history of excessive alcohol use
Myocarditis 5 – 10 history compatible with viral myocarditis, endomyocardial biopsy
Rare 2–3  
Peripartum   history
Amyloidosis   echocardiogram, endomyocardial biopsy, rectal/fat pad biopsy
Hemochromatosis   extra-cardiac signs, endomyocardial biopsy, iron studies
Sarcoidosis   extra-cardiac signs, endomyocardial biopsy
Doxorubicin toxicity   history of exposure to doxorubicin
Other toxic substances   history
Metabolic DCM   laboratory tests, pediatric age