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Rare bone diseases and skeletal dysplasias

  1. Although Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) affects the connective tissue causing extremely brittle bones with consequent skeletal deformities, it is important to go beyond bones. Indeed, the quality of life in OI d...

    Authors: Antonella LoMauro, Carlo Vittorio Landoni, Paolo Fraschini, Franco Molteni, Andrea Aliverti, Simona Bertoli and Ramona De Amicis

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:435

    Content type: Research

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  2. Skeletal dysplasia is typically diagnosed using a combination of radiographic imaging, clinical examinations, and molecular testing. Identifying a molecular diagnosis for an individual with a skeletal dysplasi...

    Authors: Alicia Scocchia, Tiia Kangas-Kontio, Melita Irving, Matti Hero, Inka Saarinen, Liisa Pelttari, Kimberly Gall, Satu Valo, Johanna M. Huusko, Jonna Tallila, Johanna Sistonen, Juha Koskenvuo and Tero-Pekka Alastalo

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:412

    Content type: Research

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  3. Osteomyelitis variolosa is a self-limiting disease triggered by variola virus that cannot be prevented or repaired. Smallpox has been eradicated for 40 years, and complications that remain after smallpox has b...

    Authors: Jinshuo Tang, Pu Shao, Te Liu, Xinggui Wen, Yeliang Wang, Chenyu Wang, Yachen Peng, Hua Yao and Jianlin Zuo

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:354

    Content type: Review

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  4. Currently, there is limited research on how having a child diagnosed with achondroplasia affects parents’ lives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the experiences of parents of infants and young chil...

    Authors: Kathryn M. Pfeiffer, Meryl Brod, Alden Smith, Dorthe Viuff, Sho Ota and R. Will Charlton

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:351

    Content type: Research

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  5. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), an ultra-rare, progressive, and permanently disabling disorder of extraskeletal ossification, is characterized by episodic and painful flare-ups and irreversible he...

    Authors: Robert J. Pignolo, Edward C. Hsiao, Genevieve Baujat, David Lapidus, Adam Sherman and Frederick S. Kaplan

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:350

    Content type: Research

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  6. Achondroplasia is the most common type of skeletal dysplasia, caused by a recurrent pathogenic variant in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). The management of achondroplasia is multifaceted, requiri...

    Authors: Valerie Cormier-Daire, Moeenaldeen AlSayed, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Sérgio Bernardo de Sousa, Silvio Boero, Svein O. Fredwall, Encarna Guillen-Navarro, Melita Irving, Christian Lampe, Mohamad Maghnie, Geert Mortier, Zagorka Peijin and Klaus Mohnike

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:333

    Content type: Position statement

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  7. Little is known about the spectrum of everyday challenges that people with skeletal dysplasia face because of their health and functioning. We aimed to identify factors related to health, functioning and disab...

    Authors: Heidi Anttila, Susanna Tallqvist, Minna Muñoz, Sanna Leppäjoki-Tiistola, Outi Mäkitie and Sinikka Hiekkala

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:236

    Content type: Research

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  8. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII) is the most common form of primordial dwarfism, caused by bialleic mutations in the pericentrin gene (PCNT). Aside from its classic features, the...

    Authors: Angela L. Duker, Dagmar Kinderman, Christy Jordan, Tim Niiler, Carissa M. Baker-Smith, Louise Thompson, David A. Parry, Ricki S. Carroll and Michael B. Bober

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:231

    Content type: Research

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  9. Previous studies have found a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with achondroplasia, but clinical studies on this complication in adults with achondroplasia are lacking.

    Authors: Svein O. Fredwall, Britt Øverland, Hanne Berdal, Søren Berg, Harald Weedon-Fekjær, Ingeborg B. Lidal, Ravi Savarirayan and Grethe Månum

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:156

    Content type: Research

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  10. Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder also known as ‘brittle bone disease’. The clinical manifestation of OI shows a wide variation. Therefore, care for patients with OI requires an interdisciplin...

    Authors: Wouter Nijhuis, Anton Franken, Kara Ayers, Chantal Damas, Lars Folkestad, Antonella Forlino, Paolo Fraschini, Claire Hill, Guus Janus, Richard Kruse, Lena Lande Wekre, Lieve Michiels, Kathleen Montpetit, Leonardo Panzeri, Valerie Porquet-Bordes, Frank Rauch…

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:140

    Content type: Research

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  11. X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a hereditary rare disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in PHEX gene leading tohypophosphatemia and high renal loss of phosphate. Rickets and growth retardation are the m...

    Authors: Enrique Rodríguez-Rubio, Helena Gil-Peña, Sara Chocron, Leire Madariaga, Francisco de la Cerda-Ojeda, Marta Fernández-Fernández, Carmen de Lucas-Collantes, Marta Gil, María Isabel Luis-Yanes, Inés Vergara, Juan David González-Rodríguez, Susana Ferrando, Montserrat Antón-Gamero, Marta Carrasco Hidalgo-Barquero, Angustias Fernández-Escribano, Mº Ángeles Fernández-Maseda…

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:104

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:154

  12. Cervical myelopathy and hydrocephalus occasionally occur in young children with achondroplasia. However, these conditions are not evaluated in a timely manner in many cases. The current study presents signifi...

    Authors: Youngbo Shim, Jung Min Ko, Tae-Joon Cho, Seung‐Ki Kim and Ji Hoon Phi

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:81

    Content type: Research

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  13. Mandibular condylar osteochondroma (OC) could lead to facial morphologic and functional disturbances, such as facial asymmetry, malocclusion, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. However, after condylar OC...

    Authors: Lei Qi, Ningning Cao, Weiwen Ge, Tengfei Jiang, Linfeng Fan and Lei Zhang

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:59

    Content type: Research

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  14. Pain is a highly prevalent symptom experienced by patients across numerous rare musculoskeletal conditions. Much remains unknown regarding the central, neurobiological processes associated with clinical pain i...

    Authors: Ke Peng, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran, Robert Labadie, Miranda Veliu, Chandler Cheung, Arielle Lee, Paul B. Yu and Jaymin Upadhyay

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:54

    Content type: Research

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  15. Skeletal dysplasia are genetic disorders of cartilage and bone, characterized by impairments commonly resulting in short stature, altered movement biomechanics, pain, fatigue and reduced functional performance...

    Authors: Penelope J. Ireland, Ravi Savarirayan, Tash Pocovi, Tracy Tate, Marie Coussens, Louise Tofts, Craig Munns and Verity Pacey

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16:40

    Content type: Research

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  16. Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature, immunodeficiency, anemia and risk of malignancies. All these features can affect pregnancy and pred...

    Authors: Elina Holopainen, Svetlana Vakkilainen and Outi Mäkitie

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:326

    Content type: Research

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  17. Achondroplasia is the most common dwarfing disorder. It can result in a variety of sequelae, including neurologic complications, among which high cervical myelopathy is one of particular concern. However, some...

    Authors: Cory J. Smid, Janet M. Legare, Peggy Modaff and Richard M. Pauli

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:301

    Content type: Research

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  18. Vitamin D-dependent rickets type IA (VDDR-IA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the early onset of severe rickets. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to analyze the clinical c...

    Authors: Yunfei Li, Xin Yuan, Ruimin Chen, Xiangquan Lin, Huakun Shangguan, Xiaohong Yang and Ying Zhang

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:273

    Content type: Research

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  19. Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) was a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia. Calcium activated nucleotidase 1 (CANT1) mutation was identified as a common pathogenic change for DBQD type 1 and Kim variant but no...

    Authors: Hong-Dan Wang, Liang-Jie Guo, Zhan-Qi Feng, Da-Wei Zhang, Meng-Ting Zhang, Yue Gao, Chuan-Liang Chen and Bo-Feng Zhu

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:240

    Content type: Research

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  20. During the COVID-19 outbreak, the European Reference Network on Rare Bone Diseases (ERN BOND) coordination team and Italian rare bone diseases healthcare professionals created the “COVID-19 Helpline for Rare B...

    Authors: E. Brizola, G. Adami, G. I. Baroncelli, M. F. Bedeschi, P. Berardi, S. Boero, M. L. Brandi, L. Casareto, E. Castagnola, P. Fraschini, D. Gatti, S. Giannini, M. V. Gonfiantini, V. Landoni, A. Magrelli, G. Mantovani…

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:228

    Content type: Position statement

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  21. Genetic contributors to cardiac arrhythmias are often found in cardiovascular conduction pathways and ion channel proteins. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an ultra-rare disease of massive heter...

    Authors: Samuel Kou, Carmen De Cunto, Geneviève Baujat, Kelly L. Wentworth, Donna R. Grogan, Matthew A. Brown, Maja Di Rocco, Richard Keen, Mona Al Mukaddam, Kim-Hanh le Quan Sang, Umesh Masharani, Frederick S. Kaplan, Robert J. Pignolo and Edward C. Hsiao

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:193

    Content type: Research

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  22. Disorders of the spine present a common and difficult management concern in patients with skeletal dysplasia. Due to the rarity of these conditions however, the literature, largely consisting of small, single ...

    Authors: Klane K. White, Michael B. Bober, Tae-Joon Cho, Michael J. Goldberg, Julie Hoover-Fong, Melita Irving, Shawn E. Kamps, William G. Mackenzie, Cathleen Raggio, Samantha A. Spencer, Viviana Bompadre and Ravi Savarirayan

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:161

    Content type: Research

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  23. Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder involving bone fragility. OI patients typically suffer from numerous fractures, skeletal deformities, shortness of stature and hearing loss. The disorder...

    Authors: Lidiia Zhytnik, Kadri Simm, Andres Salumets, Maire Peters, Aare Märtson and Katre Maasalu

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:128

    Content type: Review

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  24. Symptomatic spinal stenosis (SSS) is a well-known medical complication in achondroplasia. The reported prevalence of SSS is 10 to 30%, an estimate based on small studies or selected populations. No population-...

    Authors: Svein O. Fredwall, Unni Steen, Olga de Vries, Cecilie F. Rustad, Heidi Beate Eggesbø, Harald Weedon-Fekjær, Ingeborg B. Lidal, Ravi Savarirayan and Grethe Månum

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:123

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:342

  25. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease characterized by heterotopic ossification (HO) in soft tissues and caused by a mutation of the ACVR1A/ALK2 gene. Activin-A is a key...

    Authors: Hirotsugu Maekawa, Shunsuke Kawai, Megumi Nishio, Sanae Nagata, Yonghui Jin, Hiroyuki Yoshitomi, Shuichi Matsuda and Junya Toguchida

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:122

    Content type: Research

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  26. Osteogenesis imperfecta, fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome and X-linked hypophosphatemia are three rare musculoskeletal diseases characterised by bone deformities, frequent fractures and pain. Little ...

    Authors: Gerda Mickute, Kristina Staley, Heather Delaney, Oliver Gardiner, Amy Hunter, Richard Keen, Lorraine Lockhart, Nick Meade, Maria Newman, Stuart Ralston, Elaine Rush, Sheela Upadhyaya, Sandra Regan, Laura Watts, Jennifer Walsh, Paul White…

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:117

    Content type: Research

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  27. Re-fracture is the most serious complication in congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT). There are reports that children with small cross-sectional areas in the sections of the pseudarthrosis are more pro...

    Authors: Yaoxi Liu, Ge Yang, Kun Liu, Jiangyan Wu, Guanghui Zhu, Jin Tang, Yu Zheng and Haibo Mei

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:62

    Content type: Research

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  28. Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by low levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Scarce evidence exists about features that should signal the potential association betwe...

    Authors: C. Tornero, V. Navarro-Compán, J. A. Tenorio, S. García-Carazo, A. Buño, I. Monjo, C. Plasencia-Rodriguez, J. M. Iturzaeta, P. Lapunzina, K. E. Heath, A. Balsa and P. Aguado

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:51

    Content type: Research

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  29. Sensenbrenner syndrome, which is also known as cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED), is a rare, autosomal recessive ciliary chondrodysplasia characterized by a variety of clinical features including a distinctive ...

    Authors: Joanna Walczak-Sztulpa, Renata Posmyk, Ewelina M. Bukowska-Olech, Anna Wawrocka, Aleksander Jamsheer, Machteld M. Oud, Miriam Schmidts, Heleen H. Arts, Anna Latos-Bielenska and Anna Wasilewska

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:36

    Content type: Research

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  30. Children with rare bone diseases (RBDs), whether medically complex or not, raise multiple issues in emergency situations. The healthcare burden of children with RBD in emergency structures remains unknown. The...

    Authors: David Dawei Yang, Geneviève Baujat, Antoine Neuraz, Nicolas Garcelon, Claude Messiaen, Arnaud Sandrin, Gérard Cheron, Anita Burgun, Zagorka Pejin, Valérie Cormier-Daire and François Angoulvant

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2020 15:2

    Content type: Research

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  31. Both mandibular condylar hyperplasia and condylar osteochondroma can lead to maxillofacial skeletal asymmetry and malocclusion, although they exhibit different biological behavior. This study attempted to comp...

    Authors: Jingshuang Yu, Tong Yang, Jiewen Dai and Xudong Wang

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2019 14:293

    Content type: Research

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  32. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) is a rare disease. Some patients present neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), while some others do not manifest NF1 (non-NF1). The etiology of CPT, particularly non-NF1 ...

    Authors: Guanghui Zhu, Yu Zheng, Yaoxi Liu, An Yan, Zhengmao Hu, Yongjia Yang, Shiting Xiang, Liping Li, Weijian Chen, Yu Peng, Nanbert Zhong and Haibo Mei

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2019 14:221

    Content type: Research

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  33. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare disease leading to hereditary bone fragility. Nearly 90% of cases are caused by mutations in the collagen genes COL1A1/A2 (classical OI) leading to multiple fractures, scoli...

    Authors: Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Mirko Rehberg, Christian Netzer, Eckhard Schoenau and Oliver Semler

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2019 14:219

    Content type: Research

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  34. Achondroplasia is the most common form of disproportionate short stature and might affect not only the quality of life of the affected child but also that of the parents.

    Authors: Stefanie Witt, Beate Kolb, Janika Bloemeke, Klaus Mohnike, Monika Bullinger and Julia Quitmann

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2019 14:194

    Content type: Research

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  35. Individuals diagnosed with a rare genetic disease that affects skeletal development often have physical limitations and orofacial problems that exert an impact on oral health. The aim of the present study was ...

    Authors: Heloisa Vieira Prado, Natália Cristina Ruy Carneiro, Matheus França Perazzo, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu, Carolina de Castro Martins and Ana Cristina Borges-Oliveira

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2019 14:145

    Content type: Research

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  36. Fibrous Dysplasia / McCune Albright syndrome (FD/MAS) represents a wide spectrum of diseases due to somatic gain-of-function mutations of the GNAS gene. The mutation leads to overactivity in the target tissues an...

    Authors: Muhammad Kassim Javaid, Alison Boyce, Natasha Appelman-Dijkstra, Juling Ong, Patrizia Defabianis, Amaka Offiah, Paul Arundel, Nick Shaw, Valter Dal Pos, Ann Underhil, Deanna Portero, Lisa Heral, Anne-Marie Heegaard, Laura Masi, Fergal Monsell, Robert Stanton…

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2019 14:139

    Content type: Position statement

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2019 14:267

  37. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP; OMIM#135100) is an ultra-rare, severely disabling genetic disease characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification...

    Authors: Robert J. Pignolo, Geneviève Baujat, Matthew A. Brown, Carmen De Cunto, Maja Di Rocco, Edward C. Hsiao, Richard Keen, Mona Al Mukaddam, Kim-Hanh Le Quan Sang, Amy Wilson, Barbara White, Donna R. Grogan and Frederick S. Kaplan

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2019 14:98

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2019 14:113

  38. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a disabling disorder of progressive heterotopic ossification (HEO), is caused by heterozygous gain-of- function mutations in Activin receptor A, type I (ACVR1, also...

    Authors: Maja Di Rocco, Genevieve Baujat, Marta Bertamino, Matthew Brown, Carmen L. De Cunto, Patricia L. R. Delai, Elisabeth M. W. Eekhoff, Nobuhiko Haga, Edward Hsiao, Richard Keen, Rolf Morhart, Robert J. Pignolo and Frederick S. Kaplan

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2017 12:110

    Content type: Position statement

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  39. Fibrous dysplasia is a rare bone disorder, commonly associated with pain, deformity and fractures, which may significantly impact on quality of life. In this study we evaluate quality of life in patients with ...

    Authors: Bas C. J. Majoor, Cornelie D. Andela, Jens Bruggemann, Michiel A. J. van de Sande, Ad A. Kaptein, Neveen A. T. Hamdy, P. D. Sander Dijkstra and Natasha M. Appelman-Dijkstra

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2017 12:80

    Content type: Research

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  40. Sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH; ORPHA178311) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the axial skeleton, the precise pathophysiology of which remains to be established. We addressed the potential associat...

    Authors: Pieter A. Valkema, Clare H. Luymes, Janneke E. Witteveen, Saskia le Cessie, Natasha M. Appelman-Dijkstra, Pancras C. W. Hogendoorn and Neveen A. T. Hamdy

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2017 12:20

    Content type: Research

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  41. Pregnancies of women displaying achondroplasia are at high risk of adverse events. Early sonographic assessment of affected women can indicate an unusually long cervical length. It is the consequence of pathol...

    Authors: Alexandre J. Vivanti, Anne-Gael Cordier, Geneviève Baujat and Alexandra Benachi

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2016 11:166

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  42. Ischiospinal dysostosis (ISD) is a polytopic dysostosis characterized by ischial hypoplasia, multiple segmental anomalies of the cervicothoracic spine, hypoplasia of the lumbrosacral spine and occasionally ass...

    Authors: Ekaterina Kuchinskaya, Giedre Grigelioniene, Anna Hammarsjö, Hye-Ran Lee, Lotta Högberg, Gintautas Grigelionis, Ok-Hwa Kim, Gen Nishimura and Tae-Joon Cho

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2016 11:1

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  43. A better understanding of the natural history of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in adulthood should improve health care for patients with this rare condition.

    Authors: Laura L. Tosi, Matthew E. Oetgen, Marianne K. Floor, Mary Beth Huber, Ann M. Kennelly, Robert J. McCarter, Melanie F. Rak, Barbara J. Simmonds, Melissa D. Simpson, Carole A. Tucker and Fergus E. McKiernan

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2015 10:146

    Content type: Research

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  44. Hajdu Cheney Syndrome (HCS), Orpha 955, is a rare disease characterized by acroosteolysis, severe osteoporosis, short stature, specific craniofacial features, wormian bones, neurological symptoms, cardiovascul...

    Authors: Ernesto Canalis and Stefano Zanotti

    Citation: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2014 9:200

    Content type: Review

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