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Table 1 Congenital/neonatal and parent characteristics in children with delayed compared to primary reconstruction of esophageal atresia

From: Postoperative morbidity and health-related quality of life in children with delayed reconstruction of esophageal atresia: a nationwide Swedish study

  Children aged 2–7 years: n(%) Children aged 8–18 years: n(%)
 Child charateristics ntot Delayed reconstruction ntot Primary anastomosis p-value ntot Delayed reconstruction ntot Primary anastomosis p-value
Child gender male 8 5 (62.5) 42 27 (64.3) 1.0 22 10 (45.5) 64 34 (53.1) 0.62
Gestational age weeks, median (range) 8 36 (26–37) 42 37 (31–41) 0.096 22 36 (24–40) 62 38 (28–43) 0.002
Prematurely born (< 37 gestational weeks at birth) 8 5 (62.5) 42 19 (45.2) 0.46 22 13 (59.1) 62 17 (27.4) 0.010
Birth weight grams, median (range) 8 2202 (590- 2855) 41 2653 (1614–4260) 0.014 22 2312 (525–3225) 62 2720 (1070–3390) 0.030
Low birth weight (< 2500 g at birth) 8 7 (87.5) 41 21 (51.2) 0.12 22 13 (59.1) 62 18 (29.5) 0.020
Gross type esophageal atresia 8 A = 3 (37.5) B = 1 (12.5) C = 4 (50.0) 42 C = 42 (100) 22 A = 9( 40.9) B = 7( 31.8) C = 6 (27.3) 64 C = 64 (100)
Associated anomaliesa 8 8 (100) 42 24 (57.1) 0.039 22 12 (54.5) 64 39 (60.9) 0.62
 Cardiovascular 8 5 (62.5) 42 9 (21.4) 0.030 22 5 (22.7) 64 22 (34.4) 0.43
 Anorectal 8 2 (25.0) 42 6 (14.3) 0.60 22 5 (22.7) 64 4 (6.3) 0.044
 Urogenital 8 4 (50.0) 42 4 (9.5) 0.016 22 7 (31.8) 64 8 (12.5) 0.053
 VACTERL associationb 8 3 (37.5) 42 6 (14.3) 0.14 22 3 (13.6) 64 11 (17.2) 1.0
Verified genetic disorder 8 1 (12.5) 42 3(7.1) 0.51 22 4 (18.2) 64 7 (10.9) 0.46
Reason for delayed reconstruction
Initital gap length, median cm (range) 3 4 (2–7)         
Initital gap length, median vertebral bodies (range) 3 4 (3.5–4)     19 4 (2–6)c    
Degree of prematurity, median (range) 2 29 (26–31)     3 29 (24–30)    
Characteristics of parent acting as proxy
Parent respondent mother 8 5 (62.5) 42 37 (88.1) 0.11 22 18 (81.8) 63 56 (88.9) 0.46
Parental age median (range 8 40 (35–47) 42 37 (26–46) 0.09 22 46 (33–58) 63 44 (33–69) 0.26
Cohabitant partner 7 6 (85.7) 42 38 (90.5) 0.55 22 21 (91.5) 63 50 (79.4) 0.10
University/College education 8 4 (50.0) 42 23 (54.8) 1.0 22 13 (59.1) 63 31 (49.2) 0.47
  1. Significant level was p < 0.05. Significant p-values are marked with bold text
  2. acardio-vascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, limb, vertebrae-rib, choanalatresia, eye, ear, central nervous system or respiratory anomaly
  3. bstands for vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. People diagnosed with VACTERL association have at least three of these characteristic features
  4. c4 missing data in the presentation of initial gap length measured in vertebral bodies