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Table 3 Etiological factors related to Legg–Calve–Perthes disease

From: Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease overview

Factor Year References
Environmental   
 Deprivation 2000 Kealey et al. J Bone Joint Surg Br
 Urbanisation 2000 Kealey et. al. J Bone Joint Surg Br
 Race 2012 Perry DC et al. Am J Epidemiol
 Gender 2012 Perry DC et al. Am J Epidemiol
 Somke exposure 2017 Perry DC et al. Bone Joint J
Metabolic   
 Tissue-plasminogen activator 1996 C J Glueck et al. Bone Joint Surg Am
 Resistance to activated protein C 1997 C J Glueck et al. Clin Orthop Relat Res
 Abnormalities in factor V 2004 Balasa VV. et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am
 Anticardiolipin antibodys 2004 Balasa VV. et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am
 Low antithrombin activity 2005 Yilmaz D. et al. Pediatr Int
 High levels of soluble Thrombomodulin 2008 Aksoy M. et al. Hematology
 Hight levels of Factor VIII 2010 Vosmaer A et al. Bone Joint Surg Am
 Protein S deficiency 2010 Vosmaer A et al. Bone Joint Surg Am
 Increased Selectin E 2014 Ismayilov V et al. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol
 Increased Selectin A 2014 Ismayilov V et al. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol
Gens/polymorphism   
 Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor Kappa-B (RANK)
rs3018362. 18q21.33. OMIM *603499
1997 Anderson DM et al. Nature
 Osteoprotegerin (OPG)
rs2073618. 18q24.12. OMIM *602,643
1998 Morinaga T et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun
 Type I collagen (COL1A1)
rs1107946. 17q21.33. OMIM 120150
1999 Sainz J et al. J Clin Endocr Metab
 RANK Ligand (RANKL)
rs12585014. 13q14.11. OMIM *602642
2004 Koga T et al. Nature
 Type II collagen (COL2A1)
rs121912891, 12q13.11. OMIM 120140
2014 Li N, et al. Plos one
 Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)
rs4986790. 9q33.1. OMIM 603030
2016 Adapala NS, et al. Am J Pathol
 Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)
rs1800629. 6p21.33. OMIM 191160
2018 Azarpira MR, et al. J Orthop
 Interleukin 6 (IL-6)
rs 1800795. 7p15.3. OMIM 147620
2021 Akbarian-Bafghi MJ, et al. Fetal Pediatr Pathol
 Nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)
rs1799983. 7q35-36. OMIM 163729
2019 Azarpira MR, et al. J Orthop
  1. rs RefSnp, reference single nucleotide polymorphism, OMIM Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man