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Table 8 Cephalometric measurements for PWS individuals under 12 years of age and PWS individuals between 12 and 20 years of age

From: Craniofacial and dentoalveolar morphology in individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome: a case-control study

Measurement   PWS < 12 years (n = 12) PWS 12–20 years (n = 10) Difference t-test
p value
Mean SD Mean SD
Basal sagittal
 n-s-ba Degree 129.2 7.0 124.5 6.0 + 4.7 0.11
 s-n-A Degree 81.1 5.3 84.7 2.9 − 3.6 0.07
 s-n-B Degree 76.1 5.5 81.0 3.0 − 4.9 0.02
 A-n-B Degree 5.0 2.4 3.7 2.2 + 1.3 0.20
 A ḻ n-pg mm 4.3 2.2 3.0 2.3 + 1.3 0.17
Basal vertical
 NL/NSL Degree 11.6 4.5 5.4 3.2 + 6.2 0.001
 ML/NSL Degree 35.9 7.4 30.7 7.4 + 5.2 0.12
 ML/NL Degree 24.3 7.6 25.3 7.9 − 1.0 0.76
 FA/n-ba Degree 88.2 5.4 92.6 4.6 − 4.4 0.06
Anterior face height
 n-sp mm 46.0 4.3 49.7 4.6 − 3.7 0.06
 sp-gn mm 57.7 6.1 67.8 8.7 − 10.1 0.05
 n-sp/sp-gn % 80.1 6.6 74.3 9.9 + 5.8 0.11
Dental
 Ii to A-pg mm 1.5 2.3 1.5 2.7 0 0.98
 ILi/A-pg Degree 20.7 4.1 21.7 4.1 − 1.0 0.58
 ILi/ML Degree 93.6 5.4 92.8 7.4 + 0.8 0.80
 Is to A-pg mm 4.5 3.5 6.4 2.6 − 1.9 0.19
 ILs/A-pg Degree 26.1 8.4 25.7 5.8 + 0.4 0.90
 ILs/NSL Degree 96.3 7.7 103.9 6.1 − 7.6 0.025
 ILi/ILs Degree 133.2 9.4 132.5 8.2 + 0.7 0.87
  1. Basal sagittal—n-s-ba: cranial base inclination, s-n-A: maxillary prognathism, s-n-B: mandibular prognathism, A-n-B: relative prognathism, A ḻ n-pg: facial convexity
  2. Basal vertical—NL/NSL: maxillary inclination, ML/NSL: mandibular inclination, ML/NL: mand./max. inclination, FA/n-ba: facial axis
  3. Anterior face height—n-sp: upper anterior face height, sp-gn: lower anterior face height, n-sp/sp-gn: ratio
  4. Dental—Ii to A-pg: lower incisor protrusion, ILi/A-pg: lower incisor inclination to A-pg, ILi/ML: lower incisor inclination to ML, Is to A-pg: upper incisor protrusion, ILs/A-pg: upper incisor inclination to A-pg, ILs/NSL: upper incisor inclination to NSL, ILi/ILs: interincisor angle