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Table 7 Cephalometric measurements for PWS individuals between 12 and 20 years of age and PWS individuals over 20 years of age

From: Craniofacial and dentoalveolar morphology in individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome: a case-control study

Measurement   PWS 12–20 years (n = 10) PWS > 20 years (n = 20) Difference t-test
p value
Mean SD Mean SD
Basal sagittal
 n-s-ba Degree 124.5 6.0 129.1 6.0 − 4.6 0.06
 s-n-A Degree 84.7 2.9 82.5 4.5 + 2.2 0.17
 s-n-B Degree 81.0 3.0 81.4 3.3 − 0.4 0.74
 A-n-B Degree 3.7 2.2 1.1 3.7 + 2.6 0.05
 A ḻ n-pg mm 3.0 2.3 − 0.2 3.9 + 3.2 0.02
Basal vertical
 NL/NSL Degree 5.4 3.2 7.5 3.7 − 2.1 0.13
 ML/NSL Degree 30.7 7.4 27.7 5.7 + 3.0 0.23
 ML/NL Degree 25.3 7.9 20.2 5.2 + 5.1 0.41
 FA/n-ba Degree 92.6 4.6 96.9 4.6 − 4.3 0.02
Anterior face height
 n-sp mm 49.7 4.6 49.9 3.7 − 0.2 0.91
 sp-gn mm 67.8 8.7 65.5 6.4 + 2.3 0.42
 n-sp/sp-gn % 74.3 9.9 76.7 7.7 − 2.4 0.46
Dental
 Ii to A-pg mm 1.5 2.7 1.1 2.6 + 0.4 0.72
 ILi/A-pg Degree 21.7 4.1 20.3 5.8 + 1.4 0.47
 ILi/ML Degree 92.8 7.4 89.7 9.3 + 3.1 0.36
 Is to A-pg mm 6.4 2.6 4.7 2.4 + 1.7 0.09
 ILs/A-pg Degree 25.7 5.8 23.8 7.2 + 1.9 0.48
 ILs/NSL Degree 103.9 6.1 106.7 8.5 − 2.8 0.37
 ILi/ILs Degree 132.5 8.2 135.9 10.7 − 3.4 0.39
  1. Basal sagittal—n-s-ba: cranial base inclination, s-n-A: maxillary prognathism, s-n-B: mandibular prognathism, A-n-B: relative prognathism, A ḻ n-pg: facial convexity
  2. Basal vertical—NL/NSL: maxillary inclination, ML/NSL: mandibular inclination, ML/NL: mand./max. inclination, FA/n-ba: facial axis
  3. Anterior face height—n-sp: upper anterior face height, sp-gn: lower anterior face height, n-sp/sp-gn: ratio
  4. Dental—Ii to A-pg: lower incisor protrusion, ILi/A-pg: lower incisor inclination to A-pg, ILi/ML: lower incisor inclination to ML, Is to A-pg: upper incisor protrusion, ILs/A-pg: upper incisor inclination to A-pg, ILs/NSL: upper incisor inclination to NSL, ILi/ILs: interincisor angle