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Table 6 Cephalometric measurements for PWS individuals under 12 years and PWS individuals over 20 years of age

From: Craniofacial and dentoalveolar morphology in individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome: a case-control study

Measurement   PWS < 12 years (n = 12) PWS > 20 years (n = 20) Difference t-test
p value
Mean SD Mean SD
Basal sagittal
 n-s-ba Degree 129.2 7.0 129.1 6.0 + 0.1 0.96
 s-n-A Degree 81.1 5.3 82.5 4.5 − 1.4 0.43
 s-n-B Degree 76.1 5.5 81.4 3.3 − 5.3 0.002
 A-n-B Degree 5.0 2.4 1.1 3.7 + 3.9 0.003
 A ḻ n-pg mm 4.3 2.2 − 0.2 3.9 + 4.5 0.001
Basal vertical
 NL/NSL Degree 11.6 4.5 7.5 3.7 + 4.1 0.06
 ML/NSL Degree 35.9 7.4 27.7 5.7 + 8.2 0.009
 ML/NL Degree 24.3 7.6 20.2 5.2 + 4.1 0.001
 FA/n-ba Degree 88.2 5.4 96.9 4.6 − 8.7 0.08
Anterior face height
 n-sp mm 46.0 4.3 49.9 3.7 − 3.9 0.07
 sp-gn mm 57.7 6.1 65.5 6.4 − 7.8 0.01
 n-sp/sp-gn % 80.1 6.6 76.7 7.7 + 3.4 0.002
Dental
 Ii to A-pg mm 1.5 2.3 1.1 2.6 + 0.4 0.72
 ILi/A-pg Degree 20.7 4.1 20.3 5.8 + 0.4 0.83
 ILi/ML Degree 93.6 5.4 89.7 9.3 + 3.9 0.23
 Is to A-pg mm 4.5 3.5 4.7 2.4 − 0.2 0.85
 ILs/A-pg Degree 26.1 8.4 23.8 7.2 + 2.3 0.44
 ILs/NSL Degree 96.3 7.7 106.7 8.5 − 10.4 0.003
 ILi/ILs Degree 133.2 9.4 135.9 10.7 − 2.7 0.49
  1. Basal sagittal—n-s-ba: cranial base inclination, s-n-A: maxillary prognathism, s-n-B: mandibular prognathism, A-n-B: relative prognathism, A ḻ n-pg: facial convexity
  2. Basal vertical—NL/NSL: maxillary inclination, ML/NSL: mandibular inclination, ML/NL: mand./max. inclination, FA/n-ba: facial axis
  3. Anterior face height—n-sp: upper anterior face height, sp-gn: lower anterior face height, n-sp/sp-gn: ratio
  4. Dental—Ii to A-pg: lower incisor protrusion, ILi/A-pg: lower incisor inclination to A-pg, ILi/ML: lower incisor inclination to ML, Is to A-pg: upper incisor protrusion, ILs/A-pg: upper incisor inclination to A-pg, ILs/NSL: upper incisor inclination to NSL, ILi/ILs: interincisor angle