Skip to main content

Table 5 Cephalometric measurements for PWS individuals and control group over 20 years of age

From: Craniofacial and dentoalveolar morphology in individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome: a case-control study

Measurement   PWS > 20 years (n = 20) Control > 20 years (n = 60) Difference t-test
p value
Mean SD Mean SD
Basal sagittal
 n-s-ba Degree 129.1 6.1 128.6 3.6 + 0.5 0.67
 s-n-A Degree 82.5 4.5 83.1 3.8 − 0.6 0.59
 s-n-B Degree 81.4 3.3 80.2 3.9  + 1.2 0.22
 A-n-B Degree 1.1 3.7 2.9 2.4 − 1.8 0.02
 A ḻ n-pg mm − 0.2 3.9 1.3 2.9 − 1.5 0.07
Basal vertical
 NL/NSL Degree 7.5 3.7 8.3 3.2 − 0.8 0.40
 ML/NSL Degree 27.7 5.7 27.4 5.5 + 0.3 0.81
 ML/NL Degree 20.2 5.2 19.1 5.6 + 1.1 0.46
 FA/n-ba Degree 96.9 4.6 92.5 4.5 + 4.4 0.0001
Anterior face height
 n-sp mm 49.9 3.7 51.1 3.6 − 1.2 0.20
 sp-gn mm 65.5 6.4 64.8 5.5 + 0.7 0.64
 n-sp/sp-gn % 76.7 7.8 79.3 7.7 − 2.6 0.19
Dental
 Ii to A-pg mm 1.1 2.6 1.3 2.6 − 0.2 0.89
 ILi/A-pg Degree 20.3 5.8 23.7 5.5 − 3.4 0.02
 ILi/ML Degree 89.7 9.3 95.8 6.9 − 6.1 0.002
 Is to A-pg mm 4.7 2.4 4.3 2.3 + 0.4 0.59
 ILs/A-pg Degree 23.8 7.3 20.7 5.9 + 3.1 0.05
 ILs/NSL Degree 106.7 8.5 101.2 6.7 + 5.5 0.004
 ILi/ILs Degree 135.9 10.7 135.6 10.3 + 0.3 0.90
  1. Basal sagittal—n-s-ba: cranial base inclination, s-n-A: maxillary prognathism, s-n-B: mandibular prognathism, A-n-B: relative prognathism, A ḻ n-pg: facial convexity
  2. Basal vertical—NL/NSL: maxillary inclination, ML/NSL: mandibular inclination, ML/NL: mand./max. inclination, FA/n-ba: facial axis
  3. Anterior face height—n-sp: upper anterior face height, sp-gn: lower anterior face height, n-sp/sp-gn: ratio
  4. Dental—Ii to A-pg: lower incisor protrusion, ILi/A-pg: lower incisor inclination to A-pg, ILi/ML: lower incisor inclination to ML, Is to A-pg: upper incisor protrusion, ILs/A-pg: upper incisor inclination to A-pg, ILs/NSL: upper incisor inclination to NSL, ILi/ILs: interincisor angle