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Table 4 Cephalometric measurements for PWS individuals and control group between 12 and 20 years of age

From: Craniofacial and dentoalveolar morphology in individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome: a case-control study

Measurement   PWS 12–20 years (n = 10) Control 12–20 years (n = 30) Difference t-test
p value
Mean SD Mean SD
Basal sagittal
 n-s-ba Degree 124.5 6.0 129.1 4.3 − 4.6 0.01
 s-n-A Degree 84.7 2.9 82.4 3.0 + 2.3 0.05
 s-n-B Degree 81.0 3.0 80.0 2.8 + 1.0 0.35
 A-n-B Degree 3.7 2.2 2.5 2.2 + 1.2 0.13
 A ḻ n-pg mm 3.0 2.3 1.4 2.4 + 1.6 0.08
Basal vertical
 NL/NSL Degree 5.4 3.8 7.4 1.9 − 2.0 0.02
 ML/NSL Degree 30.7 7.4 28.7 3.8 + 2.0 0.28
 ML/NL Degree 25.3 7.9 21.3 4.1 + 4.0 0.05
 FA/n-ba Degree 92.6 4.6 92.2 3.7 + 0.4 0.78
Anterior face height
 n-sp mm 49.8 4.6 48.5 3.0 + 1,3 0.34
 sp-gn mm 67.8 8.7 59.8 4.8 + 8.0 0.001
 n-sp/sp-gn % 74.3 9.9 81.4 6.4 − 7.1 0.01
Dental
 Ii to A-pg mm 1.5 2.7 1.5 1.7 0 0.99
 ILi/A-pg Degree 21.8 4.1 23.2 4.4 − 1.4 0.36
 ILi/ML Degree 92.8 7.5 95.1 4.7 − 2.3 0.27
 Is to A-pg mm 6.4 2.6 4.8 2.0 + 1.6 0.05
 ILs/A-pg Degree 25.7 5.8 23.1 5.6 + 2.6 0.22
 ILs/NSL Degree 103.9 6.1 102.6 5.7 + 1.3 0.53
 ILi/ILs Degree 132.5 8.2 132.7 8.4 − 0.2 0.71
  1. Basal sagittal—n-s-ba: cranial base inclination, s-n-A: maxillary prognathism, s-n-B: mandibular prognathism, A-n-B: relative prognathism, A ḻ n-pg: facial convexity
  2. Basal vertical—NL/NSL: maxillary inclination, ML/NSL: mandibular inclination, ML/NL: mand./max. inclination, FA/n-ba: facial axis
  3. Anterior face height—n-sp: upper anterior face height, sp-gn: lower anterior face height, n-sp/sp-gn: ratio
  4. Dental—Ii to A-pg: lower incisor protrusion, ILi/A-pg: lower incisor inclination to A-pg, ILi/ML: lower incisor inclination to ML, Is to A-pg: upper incisor protrusion, ILs/A-pg: upper incisor inclination to A-pg, ILs/NSL: upper incisor inclination to NSL, ILi/ILs: interincisor angle