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Table 1 Characteristics of country-year samples for regression on annual SSc publications and country-level factors

From: Effects of socio-economic factors on research over systemic sclerosis: an analysis based on long time series of bibliometric data

  2000–2017 dataset
(No. country-years = 1442)
1969–2018 dataset
(No. country-years = 7649)
Total countries, n 132 167
Annual SSc publications, mean (SD) 6.22 (18.24) 2.33 (8.06)
Population in million, mean (SD) 48.13 (158.54) 32.72 (118.49)
Female percentage of population, mean (SD) 49.96 (3.71) 50.14 (2.58)
GDP in billion 2011US$, mean (SD) 627.72 (1814.24) 314.69 (1032.69)
GDP in billion 2011US$, mean (SD) 627.72 (1814.24) 314.69 (1032.69)
Voice and accountability, mean (SD) 0.02 (0.97) NA
Government effectiveness, mean (SD) 0.16 (0.94) NA
Political stability and absence of violence/terrorism, mean (SD) − 0.06 (0.90) NA
Research and development expenditure in percentage of total GDP, mean (SD) 0.75 (0.87) NA
Health expenditure in percentage of total GDP, mean (SD) 6.29 (2.28) NA
Income groups
 High income, n (%) 49 (37.1%) 52 (31.1%)
 Middle income, n (%) 68 (51.5%) 89 (53.3%)
 Low income, n (%) 15 (11.4%) 26 (15.6%)
Rare disease legislation 45 (34.1%) 45 (26.9%)
 Legislation before 1998, n (HICs/MICs/LICs) 2 (2/0/0) 2 (2/0/0)
 Legislation during 1998–2007, n (HICs/MICs/LICs) 32 (28/4/0) 32 (28/4/0)
 Legislation during 2008–2017, n (HICs/MICs/LICs) 11 (1/10/0) 11 (1/10/0)
  1. Continual statistics were summarized by average values during the same period of regression analysis. Number of countries adopting rare disease legislations in given period were presented as in total and income groups. Data for world governance indicators, research and development expenditure, and health expenditure were only available over 2000–2017 and were therefore not included in the 1969–2018 regression or summarized here
  2. GDP gross domestic product, HICs high-income countries, LICs low-income countries, MICs middle-income countries, NA not applicable