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Table 4 Level of engagement per type of article, measured with Arnsteins’ participation ladder

From: Patient engagement in the design of clinical research in Noonan syndrome spectrum disorders: a scoping review

Type of article Number of studies Scores on Arnsteins’ ladder
Clinical study 8 Informing (level 3): 5 times
Consultation (level 4): 3 times
Proceedings 8 Consultation (level 4): 6 times
Placation (level 5): 2 times
Guideline 2 Partnership (level 6): 2 times