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Table 2 Phonation assessment of all adolescents and those with isolated and non-isolated PRS and with and without secondary pharyngoplasty

From: Quality of life and phonatory and morphological outcomes in cognitively unimpaired adolescents with Pierre Robin sequence: a cross-sectional study of 72 patients

  Total
n = 70 (%)
Isolated PRS
n = 57 (%)
Non-isolated PRS
n = 13 (%)
No secondary pharyngoplasty
n = 53 (%)
With secondary pharyngoplasty
n = 17 (%)
Nasal air emission (Glatzer mirror) 43 (61.4) 39 (68.4) 4 (30.8) 32 (60.4) 11 (64.7)
Vocal quality
 Reduced vocal power 11 (15.7) 11 (19.3) 0 5 (9.4) 6 (35.3)
 Vocal hoarseness 6 (8.6) 3 (5.3) 3 (23.1) 5 (9.4) 1 (5.9)
 Vocal projection defect 10 (14.3) 9 (15.8) 1 (7.7) 5 (9.4) 5 (29.4)
Phonation quality
 Ph1 25 (35.7) 17 (29.8) 8 (61.5) 19 (35.8) 6 (35.3)
 Ph1/2 17 (24.3) 16 (28.1) 1 (7.7) 12 (22.6) 5 (29.4)
 Ph2B 5 (7.1) 4 (7.0) 1 (7.7) 4 (7.5) 1 (5.9)
 Ph2/1 15 (21.4) 14 (24.6) 1 (7.7) 12 (22.6) 3 (17.6)
 Ph2 8 (11.4) 6 (10.5) 2 (15.4) 6 (11.3) 2 (11.8)
 PH2M; Ph2/3; Ph3/2; Ph3 0 0 0 0 0
Phonation outcome
 Normal phonation 23 (32.9) 16 (28.1) 7 (53.8) 17 (32.1) 6 (35.3)
 Mild trouble 19 (27.1) 17 (29.8) 2 (15.4) 14 (26.4) 5 (29.4)
 Moderate trouble 28 (40.0) 24 (42.1) 4 (30.8) 22 (41.5) 6 (35.3)
 Severe trouble 0 0 0 0 0
  1. NAE, nasal air emission
  2. Ph1: normal phonation
  3. Ph1/2: occasional nasal air emission (NAE); good intelligibility
  4. Ph2B: constant but non-audible NAE; good intelligibility
  5. Ph2/1: constant and audible NAE; improvement on effort
  6. Ph2: constant and audible NAE; no improvement on effort
  7. Ph2M: constant NAE hampering intelligibility or with synkinesis and/or forcing
  8. Ph2/3 or 3/2 (depending on the predominant mode): constant NAE; occasional compensatory mechanisms (glottal stops, pharyngeal friction); poor intelligibility
  9. Ph3: constant compensatory mechanisms; no intelligibility