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Table 5 Comparison between HHT patients with ascertained SarsCov-2 infection vs. COVID-19-free patients

From: Characterization of epidemiological distribution and outcome of COVID-19 in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: a nationwide retrospective multi-centre study during first wave in Italy

  Ascertained COVID (n = 9) Non COVID (n = 287) p value
General (n = 296)
Age years-old, mean (SD) 46.22 (9.55) 53.15 (17.78) 0.25
Range 35–65 3–86  
Gender (female), n (%) 3 (33.3) 154 0.31
Clinical, HHT-related (n = 296)a
Epistaxis, n (%) 9/9 (100) 274/287 (95.5) 1
PAVMs, n (%) 2/9 (22.2) 98/270 (36.3) 0.5
BAVMs, n (%) 0 27/226 (11.9) 0.4
HAVMs, n (%) 2/9 (22.2) 102/266 (38.3) 1
GI bleeding, n (%) 1/9 (11.1) 51/287 (17.8) 1
Mutated gene (n = 296)
Identified Mutation, n (%) 9 (100) 227 (79.1) 0.13
 ENG 3 (33.3) 83 (29)  
 ALK1/ACVRL1 6 (66.7) 143 (49.8)  
 SMAD4 0 1 (0.3)  
Mutation unidentified/Ongoing analysis, n (%) 0 60 (20.9)  
  1. aThe presence of HHT-related visceral arterio-venous malformations was computed by considering only those patients with screening performed in each given organ
  2. BAVMs brain arterio-venous malformations, HAVMs hepatic arterio-venous malformations, PAVMs pulmonary arterio-venous malformations