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Table 2 Differential diagnosis for osteomyelitis variolosa

From: Osteomyelitis variolosa, an issue inherited from the past: case report and systematic review

Disease Age tendency Sex predilection Etiology Unilateral or Bilateral Imaging References
Osteomyelitis variolosa Children No sex differences Variola virus Bilateral Ankylosis; dislocation; subluxation; shortening and deformity of long and short tubular bones; flared metaphyses and precocious osteoarthritis [8, 9]
Achondroplasia Infants No sex differences Genetic factors Bilateral Short, robust tubular bones; squared off iliac wings; flat, horizontal acetabula; marked narrowing of the sacrosciatic notch; a characteristic proximal femoral radiolucency; narrowing of the interpediculate distance of the caudal spine; short proximal and middle phalanges [36]
Pseudohypoparathyroidism Children and adults No sex differences Genetic factors Bilateral Ectopic ossifications; shortening of the metacarpals and metatarsals [37, 38]
Sequelae of septic arthritis Children Male Bacterial infection Unilateral Difference in limb size; avascular necrosis of the femoral head; pathological fracture [39]
Osteoarthritis Middle-aged and older Female Degeneration Bilateral Narrowing of the joint space width; osteophyte formation; development of subchondral sclerosis and cysts [40]
Rheumatoid arthritis Any age Female Chronic inflammatory disease Bilateral Joint space narrowing; bone erosion; subluxation; ankylosis; mutilating changes [41]
Caffey disease Infant No sex differences Genetic factors Bilateral Periosteal new bone formation leads to cortical thickening (hyperostosis) of the affected bones and swelling of the overlying soft tissue [42]
Leprosy Adults No sex differences Mycobacterium leprae Bilateral Juxta-articular erosions; periostitis; bone resorption; sacroiliitis; deformed joints [43, 44]
Tuberculosis Children and the elderly No sex differences Mycobacterium tuberculosis Unilateral Joint space narrowing; juxta-articular osteoporosis; peripherally located osseous erosions [45]
Kashin-Beck disease Children No sex differences Selenium deficiency and cereal contamination Bilateral Symmetrical enlargement of the phalanges; brachydactyly; joint deformity and even dwarfism [46, 47]