Skip to main content

Table 6 Univariate and multivariate analysis of cost-driving factors for total direct, total indirect and nursing care level costs (3-months period in 2019 Euro)

From: Direct and indirect costs and cost-driving factors of Tuberous sclerosis complex in children, adolescents, and caregivers: a multicenter cohort study

  n Total direct costs in € Median SD p value§ Total indirect costs in € Median SD p value§ Nursing care level costs in € Median SD p value§
Gender      0.207     0.839     0.809
 Male 95 5213 2655 5927   3291 1371 4063   1149 948 1002  
 Female 89 4667 1873 6259   3071 548 4612   1178 1635 1032  
Age      0.632*     0.099*     0.005*
 0 to 3 years 24 4554 2786 5358   4396 3231 4771   589 474 645  
 4 to 10 years 78 5047 2519 5970   2923 269 4635   1127 948 1027  
 11 to < 22 years 73 5088 1556 6578   2796 645 3687   1358 1635 1042  
Number of antiseizure drugs       < 0.001#     0.002      < 0.001
 ≥ 2 94 6829 3205 7147   4172 2553 4814   1458 1635 956  
 0–1 90 2985 1256 3871   2153 215 3488   855 0 985  
mTOR inhibitors intake       < 0.001#     0.087     0.097
 Yes 49 11,459 11,358 5945   2322 430 3795   1367 1635 1023  
 No 135 2586 1346 4085   3497 1371 4476   1089 948 1004  
Seizures       < 0.001     0.006     0.002
 Recurrent seizures 88 6852 3765 6821   4014 2258 4768   1408 1635 992  
 Seizure free > 1 year or no seizures 96 3204 1196 4707   2423 215 3744   938 948 984  
Epilepsy      0.002     0.043      < 0.001
 Yes (91.8%) 169 5230 2384 6213   3351 860 4390   1251 1635 1003  
 No (8.2%) 15 1778 711 2839   1308 0 3051   172 0 473  
Structural brain disorders      0.022     0.059     0.170
 Yes (83.2%) 153 5321 2388 6293   3369 860 4424   1211 1635 993  
 No (16.8%) 31 3111 1211 4541   2273 0 3742   925 0 1096  
Psychiatric disorders       < 0.001      < 0.001#      < 0.001#
 Yes (51.1%) 94 6372 2802 6564   4387 2848 4883   1727 2184 890  
 No (48.9%) 90 3463 1213 5157   1929 161 3233   574 0 774  
Heart and circulatory manifestations      0.008     0.133     0.059
 Yes (66.8%) 123 5755 2655 6678   3550 1097 4394   1257 1635 1044  
 No (33.2%) 61 3324 1611 4245   2447 430 4125   973 948 930  
Kidney and urinary tract manifestations      0.392     0.113     0.010
 Yes (53.3%) 98 4714 1993 6227   3552 1075 4380   1341 1635 1028  
 No (46.7%) 86 5217 2389 5931   2765 269 4252   960 948 964  
Skin manifestations      0.150     0.659     0.110
 Yes (85.9%) 158 4676 1890 6106   3139 645 4206   1212 1635 1018  
 No (14.1%) 26 6606 4946 5749   3457 323 5082   865 474 950  
Other disorders      0.600     0.899     0.991
 Yes (29.9%) 55 4134 2000 4685   2868 548 3808   1166 948 982  
 No (70.1%) 129 5296 2122 6570   3319 645 4537   1162 1635 1031  
Level of disability       < 0.001      < 0.001#      < 0.001#
 None or ≤ 60% 61 3515 1057 5560   1544 0 3235   187 0 529  
 70–100% 123 5660 2495 6221   3998 2742 4574   1647 1635 831  
Total Disorders      0.009*     0.016*      < 0.001*
 1–2 Manifestations (8.7%) 16 1282 894 1365   1593 0 3805   323 0 604  
 3 Manifestations (13%) 24 3705 1522 4194   1637 0 2811   403 0 736  
 4 Manifestations (17.9%) 33 5916 2085 6097   3475 1468 5171   1139 948 900  
 5 Manifestations (32.6%) 60 5839 2432 7021   3087 860 4037   1367 1635 972  
 6–7 Manifestations (27.8%) 51 5011 2403 6168   4337 2957 4561   1560 1635 1027  
  1. §Mann–Whitney-U-test
  2. *Kruskal–Wallis-test; SD = standard deviation
  3. #Significant predictor in multivariate analysis after Bonferroni correction