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Table 3 Direct costs for a 3-month period for the total patient group (n = 184; in 2019 Euro)

From: Direct and indirect costs and cost-driving factors of Tuberous sclerosis complex in children, adolescents, and caregivers: a multicenter cohort study

Cost components Mean costs SD1 Minimum Median Maximum 95% CI % of total direct costs Estimated annual direct costs2
Total direct costs 4949 6079 0 2062 29,231 4088; 5863 100 19,796
 Medication (n = 168) 2658 4557 0 321 21,546 2060; 3297 53.7 10,632
  mTOR inhibitors* (n = 49) 2309 4435 0 0 20,054 1715; 2928 46.6 9236
  Antiseizure drugs (n = 154) 260 378 0 159 3027 213; 312 5.3 1040
  Other prescription drugs (n = 62) 72 352 0 0 3569 33; 122 1.5 288
  OTC drugs and supplements (n = 30) 11 44 0 0 349 6; 17 0.2 44
  Emergency medication (n = 23) 5 24 0 0 266 2; 9 0.1 20
 Hospitalization (n = 41) 1027 3467 0 0 26,802 579; 1503 20.8 4108
 Ancillary therapies (n = 116) 407 470 0 212 1951 345; 472 8.2 1628
 Outpatient treatment (n = 169) 346 357 0 255 2250 298; 396 7.0 1384
 Diagnostics (n = 153) 156 194 0 101 1370 130; 186 3.2 624
 Auxillary material (n = 19) 138 738 0 0 8130 52; 241 2.8 552
 Rehabilitation (n = 2) 27 287 0 0 3671 0; 67 0.6 108
 Emergency service use (n = 5) 23 145 0 0 1200 7; 46 0.5 92
 Specific diets (n = 11) 22 122 0 0 1100 8; 41 0.4 88
 Transport costs (n = 51) 9 34 0 0 374 5; 14 0.2 36
 Co-payments for therapies (n = 64) 125 297 0 0 2020 87; 167 2.5 500
 Other co-payments (n = 22) 15 54 0 0 400 8; 23 0.3 60
  1. 1Standard deviation
  2. 2Estimation based on the mean costs in three months multiplied by four
  3. 95% CI = 95% Confidence interval using the bootstrap bias corrected and accelerated method
  4. *Everolimus n = 46, Sirolimus n = 3, OTC = over-the-counter