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Table 1 An overview of calcium channel subunits

From: Calcium channelopathies and intellectual disability: a systematic review

Gene Name Subunit Current type Neuronal localization Distribution Role Function Pharmacology References
CACNA1A Calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 A Cav2.1 P/Q-type Pre-synaptic region Cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum Form the conducting pore Involved in muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, and gene expression Can be blocked by omega-agatoxin-IVA [215, 216]
CACNA1B Calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 B Cav2.2 N-type Pre-synaptic region Midbrain, cerebellar cells, spinal cord motor neurons and cholecystokinin‐expressing interneurons Form the conducting pore Involved in muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death as well as neuronal firing Can be blocked by omega-conotoxin-GVIA and omega-agatoxin-IIIAS [217, 218]
CACNA1C Calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C Cav1.2 L-type Neuronal synapses and dendrites Brain and cardiac muscles Form the conducting pore Maintain synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival and fear conditioning Can be blocked by dihydropyridine and lead [217, 219, 220]
CACNA1D Calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 D Cav1.3 L-type Post-synaptic Brain (dendritic spines), inner hair cell and organ of Corti and heart Mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells Regulates contraction, secretion, and neurotransmission and gene expression Can be blocked by dihydropyridine [217, 221]
CACNA1E Calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 E Cav2.3 R-type Both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic Hippocampus, kidney, retina, spleen and pancreatic islet cells Mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells Involved in neurotransmitter release and long-term potentiation Can be blocked by SNX-482 [222]
CACNA1F Calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 F Cav1.4 L-type Pre-synaptic region Hippocampus, cerebellum and retina Mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells Involved in neurotransmitter release Can be blocked by dihydropyridine [217]
CACNA1G Calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G Cav3.1 T-type Post-synaptic region Cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and heart Mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells Muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division, and cell death Can be blocked by mibefradil
Hybrid of dearomatized isoprenylated acylphloroglucinol (DIAP) and monoterpenoid, hypatone A (agonist and antagonist)
[186, 223]
CACNA1H Calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 H Cav3.2 T-type Plasma membrane Brain cortex, amygdala, caudate nucleus, putamen, kidney, liver, and heart Forms the pore Regulates contraction, secretion, neurotransmission and gene expression Can be blocked by efonidipine, felodipine, isradipine, and nitrendipine [224]
CACNA1I Calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha 1I Cav3.3 T-type Plasma membrane Cerebellum, thalamus, cerebral cortex, adrenal gland and thyroid gland Forms the pore Regulates muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death Can be blocked by nickel and mibefradil [223]
CACNA1S Calcium Voltage-Gated Channel subunit alpha 1S Cav1.1 L-type Plasma membrane Muscles, brain cortex Forms the pore Regulates muscle contraction Can be blocked by dihydropyridine [217]