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Table 1 Children’s and parent’s sociodemographic characteristics of the German and Swedish sample

From: Parent–child-agreement on health-related quality of life and its determinants in patients born with Esophageal Atresia: a Swedish–German cross-sectional study

Children’s characteristics German sample Swedish sample z or χ2 U or df p
n = 23 n = 40
No. (%) or M (± SD) No. (%) or M (± SD)
Child age (in years) 12.77 (2.98) 12.24 (3.46)  .792 404.50 .43
Child gender    
 Male 13 (56.5%) 22 (55%) .78 1 .38
 Female 10 (43.5%) 18 (45%)
EA severity levela   
 Mild/moderate 14 (60.9%) 18 (45%) .02 1 .90
 Severe 9 (39.1%) 22 (55%)
Primary anastomosis    
 Yes 21 (95.7%) 34 (85%) 1.68 1 .20
 No 2 (4.3%) 6 (15%)
Associated anomalies    
 Yes 15 (65.2%) 29 (72.5%) 9.92 1 .01
 No 8 (34.8%) 11 (27.5%)
Cardiac malformation     
 Yes 7 (30.4%) 18 (45%) 2.68 1 .10
 No 16 (69.6%) 22 (55%)
Anorectal malformation    
 Yes 5 (21.7%) 5 (12.5%) 29.35 1  ≤ .01
 No 18 (78.3%) 35 (87.5%)
Birthweight (in grams)    
 ≤ 2,500 g 7 (30.4%)b 15 (37.5%)c 1.85 1 .17
 > 2,500 g 9 (39.1%) 23 (57.5%)
Gestational age (in weeks) 35.65 (3.71)d 36.44 (3.61)e  .852 284.00 .39
Parents’ characteristics No. (%) or Mean (± SD) No. (%) or Mean (± SD) z or χ2 U or df p
Parent age 46.04 (7.11) 43.52 (6.33)e  2.138 299.00 .03
Parent gender    
 Male 1 (4.3%) 5 (12.5%)e 40.32 1  ≤ .01
 Female 22 (95.7%) 34 (85%)
Partnership    
 Single parent 1 (4.3%)b 9 (22.5%)e 27.56 1  ≤ .01
 Co-habitant parent 21 (91.3%) 30 (75%)
Employment status    
 Full/part time worker 18 (78.3%)e 36 (90%)c 111.97 6  ≤ .01
 Parental/sick leave /unemployed 4 (17.4%) 2 (5%)
Health status      
 Healthy 18 (78.3%)e 33 (82.5%)e 27.56 1  ≤ .01
 Doctor diagnosis 4 (17.4%) 6 (15%)
  1. M = Mean, SD = Standard deviation, z = z-value, χ2 = chi-square, U = Mann–Whitney U, df = degrees of freedom, p = p-value, EA = Esophageal atresia
  2. a The severity of EA was divided into mild/moderate and severe according to predefined clinical criteria published elsewhere [26]
  3. b 7 missings
  4. c 2 missings
  5. d 6 missings
  6. e 1 missing