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Table 2 Differences in patient characteristics and measurements according to the presence of hydrocephalus

From: Predictors of cervical myelopathy and hydrocephalus in young children with achondroplasia

Characteristics and parametersa Yes No p-value
N 8 57  
Sex
 Male 5 (63) 31 (54) 0.96
 Female 3 (37) 26 (46)  
Age (months) 7.25 ± 4.20 14.98 ± 8.92 0.02
Follow up period (months) 18.12 ± 17.90 42.63 ± 22.99 0.005
FM AP (mm) 6.78 ± 1.90 8.73 ± 2.42 0.03
Cord constriction ratio 0.28 ± 0.14 0.19 ± 0.16 0.145
Anterior indentation
 0 3 (38) 21 (37) 0.20
 1 1 (12) 23 (40)  
 2 4 (50) 13 (23)  
Posterior indentation
 0 1 (12) 37 (65) 0.009
 1 3 (38) 12 (21)  
 2 4 (50) 8 (14)  
Indentation index
 0 1 (12) 21 (37) 0.19
 1 1 (12) 14 (25)  
 2 2 (25) 9 (16)  
 3 1 (12) 7 (12)  
 4 3 (38) 6 (10)  
Frontal horn width (mm) 49.85 ± 11.70 40.08 ± 7.46 0.002
BPD (mm) 138.96 ± 13.40 137.13 ± 7.53 0.57
Evans ratio 0.36 ± 0.08 0.29 ± 0.05 0.002
Periventricular HSI (mm2) 22.49 ± 22.98 12.34 ± 12.65 0.06
FMD
 Yes 7 (88) 14 (25)  
 No 1 (12) 43 (75)  
VP shunt
 Yes 1 (12) 0 (0)  
 No 7 (88) 57 (100)  
Later event
 Yes 0 (0) 2 (3) 1.00
 No 8 (100) 55 (97)  
  1. FM Foramen magnum, AP anterior–posterior diameter, BPD bi-parietal diameter, HSI high signal intensity, FMD foramen magnum decompression, VP ventriculo-peritoneal
  2. aData are presented as n (%) or mean ± SD