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Table 2 Comparison of selected parameters

From: Quantitative assessment of left ventricular longitudinal function and myocardial deformation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

  Group A (LGE + , EF < 50%) n = 8 Group B (LGE + , EF ≥ 50%) n = 13 Group C (LGE-, EF ≥ 50%) n = 30 Controls n = 18 p
Age (years) 20.6 ± 6.1 15.1 ± 4.8 13.0 ± 5.8* 17.5 ± 2.9 8.10–4
Weight (kg) 68.0 ± 19.9 52.6 ± 23.4* 42.1 ± 15.8* 68.1 ± 10.5 6.10–6
Height (cm) 166 ± 12 152 ± 19* 143 ± 18* 177 ± 18 1.10–9
BMI (kg/m2) 24.4 ± 5.9 22.4 ± 7.6 19.9 ± 4.1 21.8 ± 2.2 0.09
Dyspnoea (n (%)) 3 (37.5%)* 3 (23.1%) 1 (3.5%) 0 (0%) 7.10–3
Hypertension (n (%)) 3 (37.5%)* 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 3.10–6
Diabetes (n (%)) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (5.6%) 0.42
Corticosteroids (n (%)) 1 (12.5%) 6 (46.2%)* 15 (50.0%)* 0 (0%) 8.10–4
ACE-inhibitors (n (%)) 5 (62.5%)* 8 (61.5%)* 5 (17.9%) 0 (0%) 1.10–4
ARBs (n (%)) 2 (25.0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1.10–3
β-blockers (n (%)) 6 (75.0%)* 1 (7.7%) 1 (3.6%) 0 (0%) 1.10–7
Diuretics (n (%)) 3 (37.5%)* 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 4.10–6
LV EF (%) 37.9 ± 9.9* 61.2 ± 7.1 64.9 ± 6.8 66.3 ± 7.2 1.10–13
LVMi (g/m2) 59.2 ± 12.9 41.8 ± 7.7* 33.5 ± 7.6* 53.6 ± 13.0 3.10–11
LV EDVi (ml/m2) 88.5 ± 29.6* 47.9 ± 8.5* 52.4 ± 13.0* 64.8 ± 11.6 8.10–9
LV ESVi (ml/m2) 55.9 ± 23.9* 18.7 ± 5.12 19.1 ± 7.2 21.6 ± 4.4 7.10–14
LV SVi (ml/m2) 32.6 ± 9.5* 29.1 ± 5.4* 32.8 ± 8.2* 43.3 ± 10.4 1.10–5
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation; categorical as total count (percentage)
  2. Variables marked in bold have their ANOVA/χ2 test p value < 0.05
  3. *denotes a significant difference compared with the control group (Dunnet post hoc test or a series of 3 Fisher exact tests with Bonferroni correction)
  4. BMI, body mass index (kg/m2); ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blockers; LGE + , positive late gadolinium enhancement; LGE–, negative late gadolinium enhancement; LV, left ventricle; EF, ejection fraction; LVMi, left ventricular mass index; EDVi, end-diastolic volume index; ESVi, end-systolic volume index; SVi, stroke volume index