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Table 3 Gender differences in HHT severity

From: Gender differences in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia severity

  Female
(n = 142)
Male
(n = 100)
P value
Follow-up, months (mean ± SD) 41.9 ± 25.8 40.4 ± 25.3 0.647
ESS
 ESS at baseline (mean ± SD) 3.47 ± 2.19 3.65 ± 2.12 0.536
 ESS during follow-up (mean ± SD) 2.21 ± 1.76 2.52 ± 1.71 0.242
 ESS ≥ 4 61 (42.9%) 37 (37%) 0.379
 ESS ≥ 7 9 (6.3%) 8 (8%) 0.604
Simple Clinical Scoring Index 3.38 ± 1.20 2.03 ± 1.24 < 0.001
 Low 36 (25.3%) 61 (61%) < 0.001
 Intermediate 90 (63.4%) 31 (31%) < 0.001
 High 7 (4.9%) 0 0.043
HHT-score 2.31 ± 1.06 2.09 ± 0.88 0.083
 Mild 88 (62%) 69 (69%) 0.259
 Moderate 47 (33.1%) 29 (29%) 0.532
 Severe 7 (4.9%) 1 (1%) 0.245
Invasive treatment
 Pulmonary embolization 34 (23.9%) 16 (16%) 0.126
 Brain embolization 2 (1.4%) 0 0.470
 Liver transplantation 2 (1.4%) 0 0.513
 Young surgery 3 (2.1%) 0 0.270
 Anyone of the above 40 (28.2%) 16 (16%) 0.027
Adverse outcomes
 Hemoglobin < 8 g/dL or RBC transfusion 49 (34.5%) 33 (33%) 0.578
 RBC transfusion 37 (26.1%) 27 (27%) 0.870
 ED visit 40 (28.2%) 48 (48%) 0.002
 Hospital admission 27 (19%) 26 (26%) 0.196
 Mortality 4 (2.8%) 4 (4%) 0.721
 Anyone of the above 70 (49.3%) 53 (53%) 0.570
  1. Abbreviations: EES Epistaxis Severity Score, RBC red blood cell, ED emergency department