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Table 2 Gender differences in HHT involvement

From: Gender differences in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia severity

  Female
(n = 142)
Male
(n = 100)
P value
Hepatic assessment
Hepatic manifestations 10 (7.1%) 0 0.006
 Ischemic cholangitis/right-upper abdominal pain 6 (4.2%) 0 0.044
 Heart failure* 8 (5.6%) 0 0.022
 Hepatic encephalopathy 0 0
TTE 139 (97.9%) 97 (97%) 0.693
 Cardiac index, L/min/m2 (mean ± SD) 3.21 ± 0.87 2.87 ± 0.75 0.010
 Cardiac Index > 4 17 (11.9%) 4 (4%) 0.055
Abdominal CT 126 (88.7%) 90 (90%) 0.754
Hepatic involvement 85 (59.8%) 47 (47%) 0.024
 Arteriovenous shunt 40 (28.2%) 13 (13%) 0.026
 Bile duct dilatation 7 (4.9%) 0 0.043
 Portovenous shunt 13 (9.1%) 9 (9%) 0.590
 Arterioportal shunt 28 (19.7%) 19 (19%) 0.417
 Hepatic telangiectasia 58 (40.8%) 27 (27%) 0.182
 FNH/NRH 10 (7%) 5 (5%) 0.827
 Tortuous or enlarged hepatic artery 30 (21.1%) 13 (13%) 0.346
Other intrabdominal involvement at abdominal CT 46 (32.4%) 36 (36%) 0.639
 Pancreatic 27 (19%) 19 (19%) 0.514
 Splenic 13 (9.1%) 10 (10%) 0.912
 Renal 6 (4.2%) 6 (6%) 0.675
 Arterial 1 (0.7%) 2 (2%) 0.582
Pulmonary assessment
Pulmonary Manifestations 14 (9.9%) 9 (9%) 0.822
  Dyspnea 7 (4.9%) 2 (2%) 0.313
  Respiratory failure 5 (3.5%) 1 (1%) 0.405
  Hemoptysis 0 2 (2%) 0.170
  Ischemic stroke 6 (4.2%) 5 (5%) 0.765
  Abscess 4 (2.8%) 2 (2%) 1.000
TTE 139 (97.9%) 97 (97%) 0.693
  R/L shunt contrast TTE 99 (69.7%) 62 (62%) 0.128
  Shunt ≥2 53 (37.3%) 24 (24%) 0.022
  sPAP at TTE, mmHg (mean ± SD) 32.92 ± 10.21 31.28 ± 10.07 0.387
  sPAP> 40 mmHg 15 (10.5%) 5 (5%) 0.164
Thoracic CT 57 (40.1%) 24 (24%) 0.007
  Pulmonary AVMs 50 (35.2%) 23 (23%) 0.036
CNS assessment
CNS manifestations 3 (2.1%) 1 (1%) 0.644
  Cerebral haemorrhage 1 (0.7%) 1 (1%) 1.000
  Headache 2 (1.4%) 0 0.513
CNS imaging study 49 (34.5%) 42 (42%) 0.257
  Pathological vascular imaging 7 (4.9%) 5 (5%) 0.706
Gastrointestinal assessment
 Suspected and studied 34 (23.9%) 24 (24%) 0.992
  GI telangiectasia 29 (20.4%) 23 (23%) 0.223
 Location of telangiectasia:
  Stomach 25 (17.6%) 17 (17%) 0.903
  Duodenum 14 (9.8%) 21 (21%) 0.015
  Colon 4 (2.8%) 6 (6%) 0.326
  Ileum-Jejunum** 10 (7.1%) 7 (7%) 0.129
  1. Abbreviations: AVM arteriovenous malformation, CT computed tomography, sPAP systolic pulmonary artery pressure, FNH/NRH focal nodular hyperplasia/nodular regenerative hyperplasia, TTE Transthoracic echocardiography, R/L Right-left, CNS central nervous system, GI gastrointestinal;
  2. * Heart failure due to liver involvement
  3. ** Video capsule endoscopy was performed in 12 women and 11 men