Skip to main content

Table 1 Clinical characteristics according to gender

From: Gender differences in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia severity

  Female
N = 142
Male
N = 100
P value
Clinical characteristics,
 Age, years (mean ± SD) 48.9 ± 16.6 49 ± 16.5 0.995
 Smoke (active or history) 41 (28.9%) 62 (62%) < 0.001
 Alcohol (active or history) 6 (4.2%) 24 (24%) < 0.001
 Hypertension 34 (23.9%) 25 (25%) 0.851
 Diabetes Mellitus 8 (5.6%) 14 (14%) 0.026
 Dyslipidemia 38 (26.8%) 29 (29%) 0.701
 Heart failure* 5 (3.5%) 2 (2%) 0.703
 Lung disease 20 (14.1%) 14 (14%) 0.985
 Cancer 11 (7.7%) 11 (11%) 0.416
 Venous thromboembolic disease 2 (1.4%) 4 (4%) 0.240
 Atrial fibrillation 15 (10.6%) 4 (4%) 0.056
Curaçao criteria,
 Epistaxis 134 (94.4%) 99 (99%) 0.085
 Telangiectasia 135 (95.1%) 99 (99%) 0.145
 Visceral involvement 119 (83.8%) 73 (73%) 0.056
 Family history 137 (96.5%) 91 (91%) 0.072
 Curaçao criteria ≥3 135 (95.1%) 97 (97%) 0.315
Genetic test, 102 (71.8%) 70 (70%) 0.757
 ENG 49 (34.5%) 31 (31%) 0.670
 ACVRL1 42 (29.6%) 33 (33%) 0.407
 Negative 11 (7.7%) 6 (6%) 0.515
Blood test,
 Hemoglobin levels, g/dL (mean ± SD) 12.5 ± 2.2 13.4 ± 2.9 0.007
 Anemia** 45 (31.7%) 39 (39%) 0.247
 Iron deficiency*** 85 (59.8%) 59 (59%) 0.937
 AST, μkat/L (mean ± SD) 0.35 ± 0.19 0.35 ± 0.12 0.874
 AF, μkat/L (mean ± SD) 1.36 ± 0.84 1.97 ± 7.82 0.455
 Bilirubin, μmol/L (mean ± SD) 8.67 ± 5.74 10.01 ± 7.10 0.133
  1. Abbreviations: ACVRL1 activin A receptor type II-like 1, ENG Endoglin, AST aspartate aminotransferase, AF alkaline phosphatase
  2. * Heart failure due to cardiovascular heart disease
  3. ** Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels < 12 g/dL in women and < 13 g/dL in men
  4. *** Iron deficiency was defined as blood ferritin levels < 15 μg/L.