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Table 5 Average scores of PedsQL Family Impact Module across disease-related characteristics (n = 87)

From: Quality of life of children with spinal muscular atrophy and their caregivers from the perspective of caregivers: a Chinese cross-sectional study

Caregivers’ QoL Mobility
Mean ± SD
Skeletal deformity
Mean ± SD
Digestive system dysfunction
Mean ± SD
Non-Sitter (n = 46) Sitter (n = 39) Walker (n = 16) Effect size (d) No (n = 27) Yes (n = 74) Effect size (d) No (n = 78) Yes (n = 23) Effect size (d)
Non-sitter versus Sitter Non-sitter versus Walker Sitter versus walker
Total score 50.43 ± 24.33 56.28 ± 24.03 60.94 ± 20.83b,c 0.24 0.43 0.19 47.94 ± 24.78 39.29 ± 18.37 0.35 45.05 ± 19.63 29.92 ± 19.45 0.77
Physical functioning 34.33 ± 24.89 45.30 ± 23.14a 66.67 ± 20.53b,c 0.44 1.40 0.86 55.86 ± 23.58 39.25 ± 25.43 0.65 50.37 ± 22.77 21.01 ± 23.25 1.26
Emotional functioning 31.30 ± 25.96 36.92 ± 21.29 54.69 ± 20.69b,c 0.22 1.10 0.68 46.67 ± 26.67 33.72 ± 23.00 0.49 41.15 ± 22.53 23.70 ± 26.94 0.65
Social functioning 32.34 ± 26.46 37.34 ± 24.81 60.16 ± 26.70b,c 0.19 1.04 0.85 46.07 ± 35.45 35.98 ± 23.47 0.28 42.15 ± 27.09 26.90 ± 25.45 0.56
Cognitive functioning 42.07 ± 23.13 46.03 ± 26.39 63.13 ± 26.64b,c 0.15 0.79 0.64 53.89 ± 29.40 44.40 ± 24.06 0.32 51.22 ± 25.37 32.39 ± 22.00 0.74
Communication 43.48 ± 29.91 42.31 ± 24.29 58.85 ± 31.40 0.04 0.49 0.53 48.15 ± 33.60 44.48 ± 26.50 0.11 47.87 ± 27.01 37.32 ± 32.16 0.33
Worry 29.57 ± 22.85 24.62 ± 18.79 40.00 ± 27.69 0.22 0.38 0.56 29.81 ± 29.92 29.12 ± 19.52 0.02 29.74 ± 22.75 27.83 ± 22.55 0.08
Daily activities 32.43 ± 24.48 35.04 ± 25.30 43.75 ± 25.18 0.10 0.45 0.34 36.42 ± 30.24 34.79 ± 22.97 0.05 38.35 ± 25.35 24.64 ± 20.79 0.54
Family relationships 50.43 ± 24.33 56.28 ± 24.03 60.94 ± 20.83 0.2 0.44 0.19 60.18 ± 25.02 52.23 ± 23.15 0.32 56.35 ± 22.94 47.61 ± 25.89 0.34
  1. Values in the table are means, standard deviations and effect sized. Effect size (Cohen’s d) is interpreted as: 0.2 ≤ d < 0.5 small difference, 0.5 ≤ d < 0.8 moderate, and d ≥ 0.8 large
  2. Bold prints indicate P < 0.05
  3. aPost hoc significance between non-sitter and sitter
  4. bPost hoc significance between non-sitter and walker
  5. cPost hoc significance between sitter and walker