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Table 3 Average scores of PedsQL Family Impact Module across SMA subtypes (n = 101)

From: Quality of life of children with spinal muscular atrophy and their caregivers from the perspective of caregivers: a Chinese cross-sectional study

Caregivers’ quality of life SMA Type I
Mean ± SD (n = 26)
SMA Type II
Mean ± SD (n = 56)
SMA Type III
Mean ± SD (n = 19)
Effect size (d)
I versus II I versus III II versus III
Total score 34.97 ± 21.97 40.56 ± 17.76 53.80 ± 21.87b,c 0.25 0.86 1.45
Physical functioning 29.01 ± 25.18 45.16 ± 21.52 59.43 ± 29.23a,b,c 0.64 1.04 0.49
Emotional functioning 31.54 ± 28.42 33.93 ± 20.64 54.47 ± 23.27b,c 0.08 0.81 0.88
Social functioning 29.33 ± 26.15 37.28 ± 25.11 55.59 ± 29.16b,c 0.30 0.90 0.63
Cognitive functioning 40.00 ± 24.78 45.18 ± 24.77 61.58 ± 25.71b,c 0.21 0.84 0.64
Communication 41.99 ± 31.49 43.75 ± 25.69 55.26 ± 31.21 0.06 0.42 0.37
Worry 30.00 ± 26.87 26.16 ± 17.94 37.63 ± 27.35 0.14 0.28 0.42
Daily activities 28.20 ± 25.94 36.61 ± 24.40 40.79 ± 24.52 0.32 0.49 0.17
Family relationships 49.81 ± 28.02 54.46 ± 21.78 60.26 ± 23.24 0.17 0.37 0.25
  1. Effect size (Cohen’s d) is interpreted as: 0.2 ≤ d < 0.5 small difference, 0.5 ≤ d < 0.8 moderate, and d ≥ 0.8 large
  2. SMA spinal muscular atrophy
  3. Bold prints indicate P < 0.05
  4. aPost hoc significance between type I and type II
  5. bPost hoc significance between type I and type III
  6. cPost hoc significance between type II and type III