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Table 2 Average scores of proxy-reported PedsQL 3.0 Neuromuscular Module across SMA subtypes (n = 87)

From: Quality of life of children with spinal muscular atrophy and their caregivers from the perspective of caregivers: a Chinese cross-sectional study

Children’s QoL accessed from the caregiver SMA Type I
Mean ± SD (n = 16)
SMA Type II
Mean ± SD (n = 52)
SMA Type III
Mean ± SD
(n = 19)
Effect size (d)
I versus II I versus III II versus III
Total score 43.63 ± 13.08 48.79 ± 13.04 64.89 ± 19.75b,c 0.39 1.08 0.82
Neuromuscular disease 40.53 ± 13.86 49.10 ± 13.65 65.32 ± 20.21b,c 0.62 1.23 0.80
Communication 69.27 ± 33.85 71.79 ± 26.72 74.56 ± 27.70 0.07 0.16 0.10
Family resources 38.75 ± 13.60 33.94 ± 20.28 58.68 ± 26.87b,c 0.24 0.74 0.92
  1. Effect size (Cohen’s d) is interpreted as: 0.2 ≤ d < 0.5 small difference, 0.5 ≤ d < 0.8 moderate, and d ≥ 0.8 large
  2. SMA spinal muscular atrophy
  3. Bold prints indicate P < 0.05
  4. aPost hoc significance between type I and type II
  5. bPost hoc significance between type I and type III
  6. cPost hoc significance between type II and type III